BREAKTHROUGH (A1) Grammar Sheets © 2017 Holmwood’s Online Learning Adjectives What are adjectives? Adjectives are words that describe or clarify a noun. They describe the qualities of people, things, places etc. Example dialogue: A What's your brother like? B Well, he is tall and slim. He has brown hair. A Is he clever? B Yes, and he is creative. A How old is he? B He is quite young. A Is he married? B No, he is single. A Is he rich? B No, he is not very rich. Positions of adjectives in a sentence 1 Adjectives can come before a noun. The adjective is called the modifier of the noun. An adjective that comes before a noun is called an attributive adjective. Article A A An The 2 Adjective young tall old early Noun woman tree school train Adjectives can come after a form of the verb to be or another linking verb (e.g. become, look, seem, stay). The adjective is called the complement of the verb. An adjective that comes after a verb is called a predicative adjective. Subject Fresh fish This bed Our brothers The weather Verb is looks seem stays Adjective expensive comfortable ready fine Order of adjectives in a sentence When there are multiple adjectives describing one noun, the adjectives need to be put in a specific order: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Describing or expressing feeling (cheap, beautiful, broken) Size (huge, small, tiny, 6 foot) Shape (round, square) Age (new, antique, 50-year-old) Color (blue, black-and-white) Origin or defining (Indian, medical, Catholic) Material (silk, wooden, gold-plated) Examples: A beautiful little old black Catholic church A fine old Italian wine An old Spanish medical worker A splendid white Arab horse Articles What are articles? Articles go in front of a noun and indicate what the noun refers to. In English, there are two articles: the (definite article) a / an (indefinite article) How to use articles Article Use Meaning Examples the Can be used before all Refers to a specific nouns, singular and plural, thing the speaker and countable and uncountable hearer know about the boy, the girl, the trees, the dogs, the money a / an Can only be used before Refers to any one singular, countable nouns thing of a kind or group a book, a tree, an example, an apple Example sentences: 1 This is the man I was talking about. 2 If you show him a tree he will know its name. When to use a and an The following word starts with a vowel The following word starts with a sound consonant sound an old building a tree an American car a map an hour* a unit* an example a nice cup of tea an honest* man a one-way* street *some consonants sound like vowels and vice versa. In these cases, the sound tells you which article you should use. Special uses of a / an Rule Example Before phrases of time and measurements They go on holiday twice a year. The doctor visits him 4 times a week. Apples cost 5 dollars a kilo. Before jobs (But don’t use a / an if the job only can be practised by one person at the time) She is a teacher. He is an actor. My father is a farmer. He is President of the United States of America. Before indication of nationality He is a Dutchman. Einstein was a German. After quite/half/without That was quite a good story. I need half a litre of milk. You can’t go out without a coat. Special uses of the Rule Example No the when you use a noun in a general meaning. I like flowers. Life is too short. Before family names in the plural The Hudsons live in America. Before names of countries in the plural The Netherlands The United States of America No the when we talk about public buildings, institutions, means of transport in general. My brother hates hospitals. My kids go to school by train. Can and could Can and could are auxiliary verbs. They help the main verb of the sentence by giving extra information. How to use can You can use can to express three different things: 1 2 3 Possibility: You can do something, nothing is stopping you from doing it Ability: You are able to do something, for example because you have learnt to do it Permission: You are allowed to do something, someone says that it is ok to do it Example Meaning Possibility You can go home. There is nothing stopping you from going home. Ability You can swim. You are able to swim, because you have learnt to swim. Permission Can I stop doing homework? You are asking for permission to stop doing homework. How to make sentences with can Can comes between the subject and the main verb. Subject Auxiliary Main verb I can swim. You can go home. How to make questions with can In questions, can comes before the subject instead of after it. Auxiliary Subject Main verb Rest of sentence Can I stop doing my homework? How to make negative sentences with can To make a sentence with can negative, add -not or the contraction -n't to can. Example: I cannot swim. / I can't swim. How to use could Could is the past tense of can. You can use could for the following things: 1 To talk about ability or possibility in the past Examples: I could talk when I was three years old You could have come to me yesterday 2 To ask for permission in a more polite way Example: Could I borrow your car? (more polite) Can I borrow your car? (less polite) 3 To make a suggestion to someone Example: You could try the cheesecake. How to make sentences with could Just like can, could comes between the subject and the main verb. Subject Auxiliary Main verb Rest of sentence I could swim when I was three years old. You could try to take the bus instead. How to make questions with could In questions, could comes before the subject instead of after it. Auxiliary Subject Main verb Rest of sentence Could I stop doing my homework? How to make negative sentences with could To make a sentence with could negative, insert not after could or add the contraction -n't to could. Example: I could not talk when I was three years old. / I couldn't talk when I was three years old. Comparatives and superlatives Comparatives and superlatives are used to compare people, animals, things etc with each other. For example: That elephant is big, but the other one is bigger. The elephant over there is the biggest! My brother is rich, but my father is richer. My grandfather is the richest of them all! Bigger and richer are comparatives. Biggest and richest are superlatives. How to form comparatives and superlatives Short words Adjective Comparative Superlative fast faster fastest cheap cheaper cheapest small smaller smallest Adjective Comparative Superlative famous more famous most famous expensive more expensive most expensive dangerous more dangerous most dangerous important more important most important Longer adjectives Words ending with -y Adjective Comparative Superlative happy happier happiest easy easier easiest funny funnier funniest Comparative and superlative forms of words ending with -y can also be formed in the same way as longer adjectives, e.g. happy - more happy - most happy. Irregular comparative and superlative forms Adjective Comparative Superlative good better best well better best bad worse worst far further/farther furthest/farthest old elder eldest Demonstrative pronouns What are demonstrative pronouns? Demonstrative pronouns can be used to point to someone or something. There are four demonstrative pronouns: this, that, these and those. How to use demonstrative pronouns Far & near, singular & plural You use this and these to indicate something that is near to you. You use that and those to indicate something that is less near to you. singular plural near this these far that those Examples: 1 2 3 4 This book in my hands is great! (singular and near) These cups on my table are dirty! (plural and near) That book about elephants is upstairs. (singular and far) Those trees over there are apple trees. (plural and far) Determiners vs. pronouns Demonstratives can be used as determiners (together with a noun) or as pronouns (on their own, without a following noun). Determiner Pronoun This car is a Mercedes. I live here. That man is my father. You speak perfect English. I'd like to buy these books. He / she likes fishing. Those trees over there are huge. We make a new bike. Going to and will Going to You can use going to when you are talking about the future. Example: I am going to visit my grandmother next week. How to form sentences with going to Subject Form of to be going to Infinitive Rest of sentence I am going to have dinner. You (singular) are going to eat a sandwich. He is going to speak to his parents. She is going to drink a cup of coffee. It is going to rain. We are going to picnic at the beach. You (plural) are going to buy vegetables. They are going to visit some friends. How to use going to 1 2 When we talk about plans or intentions. The decision has already been made before the moment of speaking. Example: I am going to accept the job! When we are sure something will happen in the future. Example: Look at those clouds, it is going to rain! 3 Use it as a general verb form for the future, especially in spoken English. If you are not completely sure about it, use going to and it will sound all right. Will The verb will is the most common way of indicating future time in English. Example: I will go soon. How to form sentences with will Subject will or Infinitive contraction 'll I will/'ll Rest of sentence go home. You (singular) will/'ll take the bus. He will/'ll cycle to school. She will/'ll eat her breakfast. It will/'ll break a window. We will/'ll spend some time together. You (plural) will/'ll sit in the back of the car. They will/'ll make a cake. How to use will 1 For things in the future that you did not plan. Example: I'll do that for you! 2 To make predictions that are not based on present or past evidence. Example: I guess he will bring his mother. Biggest difference between going to and will Will is for intentions formed at the moment of speaking (promise, offer) Going to is for intentions you already have (you made your decision already) Irregular verbs Most verbs are regular. You can make the Past Simple tense by adding -ed to these verbs. Examples: to walk Present Simple walk walked Past Simple to live to work live work lived worked For irregular verbs, there is no rule for making the Past Simple. You cannot make the Past Simple of these verbs by adding -ed. You have to learn these verbs by heart. Present Past Present Past Present Past be was, were hear heard sit sat begin began hide hid sleep slept bring brought hurt hurt speak spoke build built keep kept steal stole buy bought know knew take took choose chose leave left teach taught come came let let tell told do did lose lost think thought drink drank make made understand understood drive drove meet met wake woke eat ate pay paid wear wore fall fell read read win won fight fought ride rode write wrote find found ring rang fly flew run ran forget forgot say said get got see saw give gave sell sold go went send sent grow grew shake shook have had sing sang Modal verbs What are modal verbs? Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs. An auxiliary verb helps the main verb of a sentence by giving extra information. For example: I can ride a bike. In this sentence, can is the modal verb and ride is the main verb. Can gives extra information; it indicates the ability to ride a bike. How to use modal verbs You can use modal verbs to express the following things: ability: someone is able to do something obligation: something should happen or someone should do something possibility: something is possible prediction: you think something is going to happen wish: you want something to happen or someone to do something This grammar sheet focuses on three modal verbs: can, should and must. Modal verb Example sentence Meaning can I can speak English. ability can You can take the bus. possibility should You should eat more fruit. obligation must You must eat more fruit. obligation How to make sentences with modal verbs In a sentence, the modal verb always comes before the main verb. Sentences with a modal verb have the following word order: Subject I You They Modal can should must Main verb ride eat do Rest of sentence a bike. more fruit. their homework. How to make negative sentences with modal verbs To make negative sentences with modal verbs, add -not to the modal verb. Examples: I cannot speak English. I must not go to school today. You should not eat more fruit. He cannot play basketball. She must not study for the test. They should not buy a new computer. Instead of -not, you can also use the contraction -n't. Examples: I can't speak English. I mustn't go to school today. You shouldn't eat more fruit. He can't play basketball. She mustn't study for the test. They shouldn't buy a new computer. Special properties of modal verbs Modal verbs do not have an -s form for he, she and it. Examples: He can play basketball. She must study for the test. Peter should clean his bedroom. NOT: *He cans play basketball. NOT: *She musts study for the test. NOT: *Peter shoulds clean his bedroom. Modal verbs have no -ing form and no past participle form. You can't say *canning or *musted. Negatives How to make negative sentences You can make a sentence negative by using not or another negative word. Positive Negative I am a Dutchman. I am not a Dutchman. I like cake. I do not / don't like cake. I can repair my bike. I cannot / can't repair my bike. How to use not You use not in different ways in different types of sentences. Not is often shortened (contracted) to n't, but never in combination with am or may. 1 In sentences with a form of to be, not follows the form of to be. Positive Negative (full) Negative (contracted) I am from Germany. I am not from Germany. * You are a teacher. You are not a teacher. You aren't a teacher. He is very kind. He is not very kind. He isn't very kind. We are at school. We are not at school. We aren't at school. I am reading a book. I am not reading a book. * They are running away. They are not running away. They aren't running away. 2 In sentences with an auxiliary verb, not follows the auxiliary verb. Positive Negative (full) Negative (contracted) I can make cakes. I cannot make cakes. I can't make cakes. I may play football. I may not play football. * You must give up. You must not give up. You mustn't give up. They will go home now. They will not go home now. They won't go home now. I have lived in America. I have not lived in America. I haven't lived in America. She has lived in Alaska. She has not lived in Alaska. She hasn't lived in Alaska. 3 In other sentences, you can put do not or does not before the first verb in the sentence. Positive Negative (full) Negative (contracted) I speak German. I do not speak German. I don't speak German. You work in a factory. You do not work in a factory. You don't work in a factory. He lives in Holland. He does not live in Holland. He doesn't live in Holland. She makes many mistakes. She does not make many mistakes. She doesn't make many mistakes. I work in London. I do not work in London. I don't work in London. We live in Germany. We do not live in Germany. We don't live in Germany. Negatives in the past tense For sentences in the past tense, use did not. Use the base form, not the past tense, of the other verbs in the sentence. Positive Negative (full) Negative (contracted) I spoke German. I did not speak German. I didn't speak German. You worked in a factory. You did not work in a factory. You didn't work in a factory. He lived in Holland. He didn't live in Holland. He did not live in Holland. She made many mistakes. She did not make many mistakes. She didn't make many mistakes. I worked in London two years ago. I did not work in London two years ago. I didn't work in London two years ago. We lived in Germany many years ago. We did not live in Germany many years ago. We didn't live in Germany many years ago. Past Simple How to make the Past Simple Pronoun Verb + ed Example sentence I walk + ed I walked to school yesterday. You (singular) wait + ed You waited for him last week. He pass + ed He passed his test last year. She finish + ed She finished her work an hour ago. It show + ed It showed the news yesterday. We want + ed We wanted a break last winter. You (plural) look + ed You all looked angry this morning. They jump + ed They jumped off the car the other day. Spelling exceptions Change - changed: no extra -e- when verb already ends with an -e Stop - stopped: double -p- (double last consonant when it is preceded by one vowel) Panic - panicked: extra -k- before -ed when verb ends with -c Carry - carried: -y changes into -i- (except when a vowel precedes the -y: play - played) Examples: 1 They created a lot of noise in the classroom yesterday. 2 He cancelled the trip to London last year. 3 We picnicked on the beach last week. 4 The baby cried a lot this morning. 5 She played in the garden last summer. How to use the Past Simple 1 2 3 4 When something happened in the past and it has finished I worked in the supermarket when I was a boy. When there is an indication of time which refers to the past We lived in Holland in 1991. When you express a habit I collected stamps when I was a child. When you tell a story Once there was a farmer, who lived in a small village. Personal pronouns What are personal pronouns? Personal pronouns can be used to refer to people. You use them when it is clear who or what is being talked about. How to use personal pronouns There are two types of personal pronouns: subject pronouns and object pronouns. Subject pronouns can only be used as the subject of a sentence. Object pronouns can be used as the object of a sentence. Subject pronouns The following pronouns are used as the subject of a sentence: Pronoun Example sentence I I live here. you (sg.) You speak perfect English. he / she / it He / she likes fishing. we We make a new bike. you (pl.) You are nice kids. they They want a cake. It is a lovely day. Object pronouns The following pronouns are used as the object of a sentence: Pronoun Example sentence me She helps me every day. you (sg.) We can always ask you. him / her / it We see him / her on Fridays. Wait for it. us They are waiting for us. you (pl.) He shouted at you all. them We support them. Possessive determiners/pronouns What are possessive determiners and pronouns? Possessive determiners and possessive pronouns are words that you use to indicate that something belongs to someone. Examples: 1 This is my bike. (my = possessive determiner) 2 This bike is mine. (mine = possessive pronoun) The difference between determiners and pronouns Possessive determiners A possessive determiner takes the place of the article in a sentence. Example: my bike instead of the bike Possessive pronouns A possessive pronoun can stand alone in a sentence, just like a normal pronoun. Example: This bike is mine. Singular Subject Possessive determiner Possessive pronoun 1st person I my mine 2nd person you your yours 3rd person he his his she her hers it its its 1st person we our ours 2nd person you your yours 3rd person they their theirs who whose* Plural * You can use whose to ask who owns something. E.g. Whose bike is that? Prepositions of Place How to use prepositions of place Prepositions of place are used to point out a specific place. Prepositions of place are used with all nouns. List of prepositions of place Preposition Meaning Example above higher than something The painting is hanging above the fireplace. against directed towards something The boy fell against the wall. among in a group around/round in a circular way He likes being among his friends. We are sitting around the teacher. behind at the back of Our garden is behind the house. below lower than something The apples are below the bananas. beside next to His school is beside his house. between having somebody or something on each side He is sitting between two of his friends. by very near His parents live in a house by the river. close to near Our school is close to the supermarket. in front of opposite of behind Their house is in front of the church. inside / in opposite of outside It is very hot inside the house! He is in the house. opposite on the other side The church is opposite the pub. under below something The dog is under the table. next to beside His school is next to his house. outside opposite of inside It’s cooler outside than inside. on above and in contact with The keys are on the table. at the location of something He is at school. Prepositions of place in a sentence Prepositions of place come before a noun or at the beginning of a phrase including a noun. They never come before a verb. Prepositions of Time How to use prepositions of time Prepositions of time are used to point out a specific time. Prepositions of time are used with all nouns. List of prepositions of time Preposition Use Example months In August; in May years In 1974; in 1992 seasons In winter; in the winter of 1963 part of the day In the morning; in the evening duration In three minutes, in four weeks part of the day At noon time of day At 8 o’clock celebrations At Christmas; at Easter fixed phrases At the same time days of the week On Monday; Saturday date On the 31st May special holidays On Good Friday, on my birthday a special part of a day On the evening of April the fifth. After later than something After the holidays. By not later than a special time By Friday During through the whole of a period of time During the holidays For period of time For 5 months Past for telling the time 25 minutes past 7 Since point of time Since Monday Till / until no later than a special time Till / until tomorrow In At On Prepositions of time in a sentence Prepositions of place come before a noun or pronoun. Like prepositions of place, they never come before a verb. Present Continuous How to make the Present Continuous To form the Present Continuous, you use a form of to be and the -ing form of the verb. Subject to be Verb + ing I am walking You (singular) are drinking He is working She is laughing It is raining We are dancing You (plural) are driving They are swimming Examples: 1 I am driving a car. 2 You are speaking to a lady. 3 He is travelling through England. 4 She is making a cake. 5 It is snowing right now. 6 We are going to ghe beach. 7 You are leaving the house. 8 They are doing their homework. How to use the Present Continuous You use the Present Continuous when you are talking about an action or event that is taking place right now and is temporary - it has started somewhen in the past and will end somewhen in the future. For example: I am staying here for two weeks. You say this when you arrived somewhen in the past, you are here now and you are going to leave two weeks after you arrived. Present Perfect How to make the Present Perfect To form the Present Perfect tense of a verb, you use a form of to have and the past participle of the verb. The past participle is the base form of the verb with -ed added to it. Subject to have Past participle Rest of sentence I have worked in Germany. You (singular) have edited the text. He has visited Russia. She has travelled a lot. It has stopped working. We have lived in Holland. You (plural) have finished your homework. They have lived in Spain. Examples: 1 I have walked to school for 5 years. 2 You have worked in the office since 2011. 3 He has checked my homework. 4 She has talked without stopping for an hour! 5 It has stopped raining. 6 We have rented a car. The Present Perfect with irregular past participles Irregular past participles are formed in another way than by just adding -ed. Some very common irregular past participles are: 1 2 3 4 I have been to Australia He has seen that film 4 times. They have eaten their dinner. Tell Julie that we have gone home. The Present Perfect in sentences with an adverb The Present Perfect is sometimes used in sentences with an adverb that describes the verb, e.g. always, just, ever, still, never. In these sentences, the adverb should go in between the form of to have and the past participle. Examples: 1 I have never been to Africa. 2 Have you ever met my sister? 3 John has still got my bike. 4 We have only got a few minutes before the train leaves. 5 She has always tried to work hard. Questions in the Present Perfect To make questions in the Present Perfect, just swap the form of to have with the pronoun. Examples: 1 Have I met your boss? 2 Have you got time to help me? 3 Has he really bought this house? 4 Has she seen Peter since the accident? 5 Has it ever rained in the Sahara desert? 6 Have we still got enough money to buy this car? It is also possible to use question words with the Present Perfect. Examples: 1 How often have you worked and not got paid? 2 How long has Jenny worked here? 3 Where has Simon gone? Scan QR code to watch video Present Perfect - for and since Review: How to make the Present Perfect To form the Present Perfect tense of a verb, you use a form of to have and the past participle of the verb. The past participle is the base form of the verb with -ed added to it. Examples: 1 I have walked to school for 5 years. 2 You have worked in the office since 2011. If the sentence contains a third verb, a Continuous or -ing form, the sentence is in the Present Perfect Continuous. Examples: 1 How long have you been studying English? 2 I have been working here since 2011. Using for and since with the Present Perfect You use for when you refer to a period of time. Examples: 1 Have you been studying for a long time? 2 Yes, I have been studying for 15 years. You can use for with phrases like for ages, for years, for weeks, forever The Present Perfect in sentences with an adverb The Present Perfect is sometimes used in sentences with an adverb that describes the verb, e.g. always, just, ever, still, never. In these sentences, the adverb should go in between the form of to have and the past participle. Examples: 1 I have never been to Africa. 2 Have you ever met my sister? 3 John has still got my bike. 4 We have only got a few minutes before the train leaves. 5 She has always tried to work hard. Questions in the Present Perfect To make questions in the Present Perfect, just swap the form of to have with the pronoun. Examples: 1 Have I met your boss? 2 Have you got time to help me? 3 Has he really bought this house? 4 Has she seen Peter since the accident? 5 Has it ever rained in the Sahara desert? 6 Have we still got enough money to buy this car? It is also possible to use question words with the Present Perfect. Examples: 1 How often have you worked and not got paid? 2 How long has Jenny worked here? 3 Where has Simon gone? Present Simple How to make the Present Simple Pronoun Verb Example sentence I eat I eat pizza every week. You (singular) walk You walk to school. He / She / it buy He buys chocolate. work She works at weekends. rain It rains in Holland. We work We work in a factory. You (plural) study You all study English They play They play football on Saturdays. This is the basic Present Simple – just the verb. If you have he, she or it, then you add an -s to the verb. There are a few exceptions: Verb ends in Verb Add Example -s pass -es He passes -sh wish -es She wishes -ch watch -es He watches -x mix -es It mixes -o go/do -es It goes/does consonant + -y carry change y to i, then add -es She carries You use the Present Simple in repeated events and general facts For example: 1 You sometimes eat pizza. 2 We walk to school every day. 3 He often buys chocolate. 4 I usually do my homework in the evening. 5 She never works at weekends. 6 It always rains in Holland. In these examples, the words sometimes, every day, often, usually, never, always indicate a repeated event or a general fact Present Simple vs. Continuous Differences between Present Simple and Present Continuous Ongoing actions vs. repeated events You use the Present Continuous for actions that are happening now. You use the Present Simple for repeated events and general facts. Example sentence Present Continuous I am speaking English to you now. Present Simple I speak English every day. When to use The action is happening now The action is a repeated event; it happens every day Longer vs. shorter actions You use the Present Continuous for longer actions that have started in the past and are still going on. You use the Present Simple for shorter actions. Example sentence When to use Present Continuous I am talking to you right now. It is a longer and ongoing action Present Simple I look at my watch. Example sentences Present Simple: I talk to my boss every Friday. You always listen very carefully. It rains a lot in September. Present Continuous: I am speaking to you now. You are listening to me at the moment. He is filming me at the same time. It is a shorter action Some and any How to use some Some replaces a / an when you are talking about more than one or about something that you cannot count. Examples: I have some money. There are some children in the room. How to use any Any often replaces some in negative sentences and questions. Examples: I don't have any money. Are there any children in the room? Some and any in questions When you ask if something exists or if there are more than one, always use any. Examples: Do you have any money? (You want to know if the other person has money) Are there any clever children here? (You want to know if there are clever children) When you request or offer something, you should use some. Examples: Would you like some coffee? (offer) Could you please lend me some money? (request) In some cases, you can use both some and any, but the resulting questions have different meanings. Examples: Can you give me some examples? (You think the other person can give you an example) Can you give me any examples? (You don’t think the other person can give you an example) Using if You use if to indicate that something may or may not happen, depending on conditions or circumstances. If is called a conditional. Example: If we play tennis, I will win. In this example, if indicates that one thing has to happen before the other thing can happen. You can also add then to the sentence to show the relationship between the two things: If we play tennis then I will win. How to make sentences with if If is part of the so-called if-clause or conditional clause. This clause usually comes at the front of the sentence, but often it can also be placed at the end of the sentence. In the following examples, the part of the sentence in bold is the conditional clause. Examples: 1 If you like, you can borrow my textbook. 2 You can borrow my textbook if you like. How to use if You can use if to express different kinds of conditions. This grammar sheet focuses on general rules and predictions. General rules When you talk about something that will certainly happen when something else happens, you use the Present Simple in both clauses. It is a general rule or a statement about reality. Examples: 1 If you go outside in the rain without an umbrella, you get wet. 2 If you break your leg, you see a doctor. Predictions When you want to predict that something happens in the future as a result of the first thing, you can use a form of the auxiliary verb will in the second part of the sentence. Examples: 1 If you take this medicine, you will soon feel better. 2 If I go to England, I will stay there for three weeks. Yes-no questions How to make yes-no questions There are two ways to make yes-no questions: 1 With a form of to be or an auxiliary verb (can, must, will, shall, have) 2 With do How to make questions with to be or an auxiliary verb Follow these steps: a Begin with a sentence in statement form b Move the first verb of the sentence (to be or an auxiliary verb) to the beginning of the sentence c Replace the full stop or punctuation mark with a question mark (?). Statement Verb Question I am a boy to be Am I a boy? He is older than his sister. to be Is he older than his sister? They are a nice couple. to be Are they a nice couple? He can speak Dutch. can Can he speak Dutch? He will be waiting for us. will Will he be waiting for us? I shall wait for you. shall Shall I wait for you? How to make questions with do If the sentence in statement form does not have a form of to be or auxiliary verb, start the question with a form of do. Statement Verb Question I need to go home. do Do I need to go home? You like swimming. do Do you like swimming? She plays with her doll. do Does she play with her doll? We live in Detroit. do Do we live in Detroit? They told us the truth. do Did they tell us the truth?