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eTeacher BIBLICAL
Online Language Academy
Biblical Hebrew A
Units 1-30
eTeacherGROUP
Online Language Academy
w w w . e T e a c h e r G r o u p . c o m
Authors: Ohad Cohen and Sarah Baker
Academic Manager: Ohad Cohen
Graphic Design: Sarah Baker
2012 © All Rights Reserved
eTeacher Ltd.
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Dear Students,
Shalom! Welcome!
Hebrew is an ancient and fascinating language with a rich history.
Learning Biblical Hebrew will enable you to read the Bible first
hand in the language in which it was written. It will also enable you
to grasp the meaning of the original text without needing to rely on
a translation.
During this first course you will learn the Hebrew alphabet and
vowels, become familiar with the basic paradigms of Hebrew
nouns and verbs and acquire 450 common Biblical Hebrew words.
Ohad Cohen
The grammatical topics will be learned within the framework of
Curriculum Supervisor and famous biblical stories.
Academic Manager
This workbook is designed to accompany you throughout the units
that make up your Biblical Hebrew course.
eTeacherBiblical.com
For each unit we have provided in the workbook the glossary of
new Hebrew words you will be learning during that specific unit.
All of the vocabulary words for the course are compiled in an
Excel spreadsheet that is located in the “Homework and Extras”
section of your online “Student Locker.”
We’ve also added some selected slides from each unit, which
appear in identical format in the online class session. Including
these slides in the workbook will help you to adapt to the world of
online education by giving you the opportunity to take notes in a
written format. Giving you these slides in the workbook also
enables your teacher to offer exercises that can be completed both
over the Internet and on paper.
After the glossary and slides for each unit, you will find your
homework exercises. Answers for these exercises can be found in
the unit files located in your “Student Locker” in the online
campus.
I would like to wish you an enjoyable and productive learning
experience.
Yours,
Ohad Cohen
eTeacherBiblical.com
Helpful Contacts
Customer Service
[email protected]
Technical Support
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For More Info
www.eTeacherGroup.com
Table of Contents 1-30
No.
Unit Name
Unit Description
1
The Hebrew
Alphabet: Then
and Now
2
The Hebrew
Alphabet,
Continued
The Hebrew
Vowels
Welcome! – After introducing ourselves, we will start to
learn about the history of the Hebrew alphabet. We will
discuss its relationship with the Latin alphabet and learn our
first 8 Hebrew letters.
In our second unit we will continue to learn about the
Hebrew alphabet and cover the rest of it. At the end of the
unit we will be able to recognize all 23 of the Hebrew letters.
After learning the letters and consonants we will begin to
learn about the Hebrew vowels. We will start with the
history of the Hebrew vowels notation and get familiar with
the first vowel, [a].
In this unit we will continue with the rest of the Hebrew
vowels and learn about the vowels [e-i-o-u]. We can already
start to read short verses from the story of the creation
(Genesis 1).
After discussing the Hebrew consonants and vowels we will
learn how Hebrew marks gemination (doubling of a
consonant) and how to divide words into syllables. We will
also read and discuss verses from the story of the tree of
knowledge (Genesis 3).
Now, after we are able to read and pronounce the Hebrew
sounds, we will turn to discussing the morphology of
Hebrew words. We will start with the nouns and adjectives
and learn about their basic forms and grammar. We will
learn these issues while continuing the discussion on the
story of the tree of knowledge (Genesis 3).
In this unit we will go back a little to the realm of the sounds
and learn about another vocalic sign, the 'Shewa'. We will
discuss this sign within the framework of the story of the
Tower of Babel (Genesis 11).
The question discussed in this unit is - how does Hebrew
create words? We will learn about the Hebrew terms
'Shoresh' (root) and Mishqal (pattern). We will also read and
discuss a few verses from the story of the flood
(Genesis 6-8).
In this unit we will complete the phonological part by
learning a few more vowels: the short vowel [o] (qamatzqatan) and the reduced vowels. We will learn how to
recognize them while discussing the story of Jacob’s dream
(Genesis 28).
3
4
The Vowels
E-I-O-U
5
The 'Dagesh'
and Syllable
Division
6
Nouns and
Adjectives
7
The 'Shewa'
8
Hebrew Word
Structure
9
A Few More
Vowels
Page
1
15
35
51
67
81
99
115
131
No.
Unit Name
Unit Description
Page
10
The Definite
Article
147
11
The Definite
Article,
Con't & Some
Prepositions
Construct
Chains
How does Hebrew mark the difference between “a boy” and
“the boy”? This is the question that will we try to answer in
unit 10. We will return to reading and discussing verses from
the story of the creation (Genesis 1) and the Tower of Babel
(Genesis 11).
In this unit we will continue to discuss some other aspects of
the definite article. We will also learn how Hebrew combines
the definite article with some prepositions, while discussing
verses from the story of the tree of knowledge (Genesis 3).
What is the difference between “a wood chest” and “a chest
of wood”? In this unit we learn how Hebrew marks the “of”
relationship. We will illustrate this relationship discussing
some verses from Genesis.
Plural Construct How does Hebrew mark the “of” relationship in plural
words? In this unit we will answer this question. We will
Chains
also read and discuss the story of Cain and Abel
I, you, he, she… In this unit we will learn about the Hebrew
Independent
independent personal pronouns. We will illustrate these
Personal
pronouns within the framework of the story of Cain and Abel
Pronouns
In this unit we will learn how Hebrew marks the differences
Pronominal
between: “my horse”, “your horse” and
Suffixes
“his horse”.
We will also discuss how Hebrew symbolized the connection
between the dove and Noah (Genesis 8).
The question that we will answer in this unit is how Hebrew
The Definite
marks the difference between “THE son of Jesse” and “A
Construct
son of Jesse.” We will illustrate these constructions within
the framework of the story of Hagar (Genesis 21).
Why doesn't Hebrew need a verb in order to create a
Nominal
sentence? In this unit we will learn how Hebrew creates
Sentences
nominal sentences. We will also discuss what happened
between Jacob and Rachel near the well (Genesis 29).
In this unit we will meet different ways to create nominal
Nominal
Sentences, Con't sentences in Hebrew. We will demonstrate how the author
of Proverbs 6:23 plays with nominal sentences in order to
design a challenging proverb.
177
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
161
193
205
223
239
255
273
No.
Unit Name
Unit Description
Page
19
Review: Ruth
289
20
Qatal Verbs
21
Translating
Qatal
22
Translating
Qatal, Con't
23
Review: Ruth,
Con't
24
Yiqtol Verbs
25
Translating
Yiqtol
26
Translating
Yiqtol, Con't
The goal of this unit is to slow down a little bit and to look
backward to what we achieved until now. We will review the
previous grammatical materials with the framework of the
story of Ruth and Naomi (Ruth 1). How can the characters’
names illuminate the story? – This will be one of the
questions that we will ask ourselves.
After discussing Hebrew nouns and adjectives, in this unit
we will start the third part of the first course – 'The verb'.
We will learn about the morphology of the suffix
conjugation called “Qatal“. We will see that there is a clear
connection between the different persons and the
independent pronouns.
What is the meaning of the Qatal form, and how do we
translate it into English? These will be the questions that we
will ask in this unit. We will also learn how Hebrew marks
the definite direct object. We will illustrate these topics using
a variety of verses from the Bible.
In this unit we will continue with the questions concerning
the meaning and the translation of the Qatal form. We will
discover how this form performs in different sentences and
how Hebrew is different from English in this point.
Why did Naomi want to change her name to Mara? What
happened to Ruth and Naomi when they returned from
Moab? These will be part of the questions that we will
answer in this review unit. The discussion will enable us to
review the previous units. (Ruth 1-2)
The second verbal form that we will learn is the prefix
conjugation called “Yiqtol“. In this unit we will learn how to
recognize this form and how Hebrew marks the different
persons in it. We will discover that also in this form there is
a clear connection between the different persons and the
independent pronouns.
What is the meaning of the Yiqtol form, and how do we
translate it into English? These will be the questions that we
will ask in this unit. We will illustrate these topics using a
variety of verses from the Bible.
In this unit we will continue with the questions concerning
the meaning and the translation of the Yiqtol form. We will
discover how this form performs in different sentences and
how Hebrew is different from English in this point.
301
317
331
345
357
375
391
No.
Unit Name
27
Review:
Ruth, Con't
28
29
30
Unit Description
What is the semantic connection between the “resting place”
and Naomi’s plans for Ruth? (Ruth 3:1) How is the author of
the book playing with the connotations of the verbs 'to know'
and 'to lay down'? These will be some of the questions that
we will answer in this review unit. The discussion will
enable us to review the previous units. (Ruth 3)
Wayyiqtol Verbs The third verbal form that we will learn is the form
Wayyiqtol. In the first part of this unit we will learn how to
recognize this form. In the second part we will discover what
the meaning of this form is and how to translate it into
English. We will illustrate its usages using a variety of
verses from the Bible.
The fourth verbal form that we will learn is the form
Weqatal Verbs
Weqatal. In the first part of this unit we will learn how to
recognize this form. In the second part we will discover what
the meaning of this form is and how to translate it into
English. We will illustrate its usages using a variety of
verses from the Bible.
“Where We've Been” is the name of our last meeting in this
Where We've
course. In this meeting we'll go back through the course and
Been
see the long way that we have come from our first unit until
now.
Now that we are able to begin walking through the Bible, it
is the time to say:
Shalom!, and see you in our coming course!
Page
405
415
429
443
Hebrew Vowels*
A
Hebrew
Reduced Vowel
Short Vowel
Long Vowel:
Plain
Long Vowel:
Mater Lectionis
E
Reduced Vowel
Short Vowel
Long Vowel:
Plain
Long Vowel:
Mater Lectionis
Other **
Hebrew
Transliteration
Name
Examples
ă
a
hatáf patáh
‫ַמ ֲח ָלצוֹת‬
ā
qamáts
āh
qamáts malé
ma‘ămād
Transliteration
Name
Examples
ĕ
e
hatáf segól
ē
tsére
‫ֱא ֶמת‬
segól malé
‫ֵאה‬
ֶ‫גּ‬
ê
eh
ê
ēh
ə / --
patáh
mahă
 lāsô
 t
‫ֲמד‬
ָ ‫ַמע‬
segól
’ĕmet
gē’eh
tsére malé
shewá
‫ִי ְשׁ ְמרוּ‬
yišmərû
* It is customary in treating Hebrew vowels to speak of length as well as quality.
Though this distinction is probably valid for the earlier pronunciation, it is
doubtful whether vowel quantity played any important part in the original
Mesoretic system.
** The moving (pronounced) shewa opens a syllable, and the silent shewa closes
a syllable
I
Reduced Vowel
Hebrew
Transliteration
Name
--
-i
-híreq
‫ִע ְב ִרי‬
--
--
‘ ib r î
î
híreq malé
Transliteration
Name
ŏ
o
hatáf qamáts
qamáts-qatán
ō
hólem
ô
ōh
hólem malé
Short Vowel
Long Vowel:
Plain
Long Vowel:
Mater Lectionis
O
--
Hebrew
Reduced Vowel
Short Vowel ***
Long Vowel:
Plain
Long Vowel:
Mater Lectionis
Examples
Examples
‫ָתּ ֳא ָרם‬
tο’ŏrām
‫חֹם‬
hōm
*** The [ָ] vowel is only pronounced as the short [o] qāmāts-qātān when it
appears in a closed unaccented syllable; in all other places, it is the long [ā]
qāmāts
U
Reduced Vowel
Hebrew
Transliteration
Name
--
-u
-qibbúts
‫שׁ ְלּמוּ‬
ֻ
--
--
šulləmû
û
shúreq
Short Vowel
Long Vowel:
Plain
Long Vowel:
Mater Lectionis
--
Examples
Unit 1
The Hebrew Alphabet Then and Now
Unit Description:
Welcome! – After introducing ourselves, we will start to learn about the history of the Hebrew
alphabet. We will discuss its relationship with the Latin alphabet and learn our first 8 Hebrew
letters.
→
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
15
Unit 1
1
‫א‬
Vocabulary
Category
Hebrew
Transliteration
Pronunciation
English
‫אָח‬
‫ֵאם‬
’āh
’ah
brother (m.s.)
’ēm
’em
mother (f.s.)
‫ַהר‬
har
har
‫ֶל ֶחם‬
léhem
léhem
bread, food (m.s.)
‫ָהר‬
ָ‫נ‬
nāhār
nahar
stream, river
(m.s.)
‫ַער‬
ַ‫נ‬
ná‘ar
ná’ar
‫נֵר‬
nēr
ner
‫ַעם‬
‘am
’am
‫ֲא ָרם‬
‫ֶאל‬
‫ִמן‬
‫ַעל‬
’ărām
’aram
Aram (Syria)
’el
’el
to, towards
min
min
from
‘al
’al
upon
Negative
Particle
‫לֹא‬
lō’
lo
no, not
Verbs
‫אָמר‬
ַ
‫ָראָה‬
’āmar
’amar
he said
rā’āh
ra’a
he saw
Nouns
Proper Noun
Prepositions
m. = masculine
f. = feminine
mountain,
hill (m.s.)
young man,
lad (m.s.)
lamp (m.s.)
people,
nation (m.s.)
s. = singular
Note: All Hebrew words are accented on the final syllable unless otherwise marked.
See this website for more practice with the Hebrew alphabet:
http://hebrewverb.hul.huji.ac.il/newtest/pre_abc.html
Unit 1
2
Slides from the Unit
Unit 1
3
Unit 1
4
Unit 1
5
Unit 1
6
Unit 1
7
Grammatical Remarks
In this unit, we meet the Hebrew alphabet for the first time. The Hebrew alphabet has a very
long history. In fact, the Western (Latin) alphabet and the Hebrew alphabet have the same origin.
The earliest form of this script that we have is from the Sinai desert and represents a Canaanite
dialect of the 16th century B.C.E. The Proto-Canaanites developed their letters by drawing a
picture of something that began with the sound they wanted to represent – e.g. water, which they
pronounced “maym,” for the sound [m]; a fish, which they pronounced “digg,” for [d], etc.
This script developed from Proto-Canaanite (ca. 1500 B.C.E.) to Ancient Hebrew (ca. 950
B.C.E.) to Classical Greek to the Latin that we use for English today. The two main historical
changes we see are that the letters became more abstract (e.g. developing from a fish into a
simple triangle) and/or turned 90° or 180°.
In Units 1-2, we will learn the 23 letters of the Hebrew alphabet, all consonants. We will not
learn these in alphabetical order; rather, we will group the letters according to their common
features.
In the charts below, there are five columns for each letter:
1. The Hebrew letter
2. The Hebrew name of the letter
3. The transliteration of the letter (i.e. how we represent the letter in Latin script)*
4. The Modern Hebrew pronunciation of the letter
5. An example of this sound in an English word
* We learn the transliteration because unlike the pronunciation, the transliteration system
distinguishes between every letter. Also, this is how Hebrew words will be transliterated in
printed material, both in this course and in other Hebrew tools (e.g. commentaries) that you
may use.
Unit 1
8
The Letters ‫ר‬-‫נ‬-‫מ‬-‫ל‬
Hebrew Letter
Name
Transliteration
Pronunciation
English Example
‫ל‬
‫ם‬/‫מ‬
‫ן‬/‫נ‬
‫ר‬
lámed
mem
nun
resh
l
m
n
r
l
m
n
r
light
map
new
air
•
The “final letters” ‫ ם‬and ‫ ן‬are the forms that the letters ‫ מ‬and ‫ נ‬take at the end of a word.
•
The ‫ ר‬is not pronounced like an English [r], but is more alveolar (pronounced with the
tongue close to the upper middle part of the mouth).
The Letters ‫ע‬-‫ח‬-‫ה‬-‫א‬
Hebrew Letter
Name
Transliteration
Pronunciation
English Example
‫א‬
‫ה‬
‫ח‬
‫ע‬
álef
heh
het
áyin
’
h
h
‘
’
h
h
’
honor/uh*oh
horse
Bach
honor/uh*oh
•
These four are known as the guttural letters, since they are pronounced in the throat.
•
The ‫ א‬is the glottal stop (brief cutting-off of the air flow) that is usually heard at the
beginning of English words with a “silent [h]” (honor, honest), before most words that start
with a vowel (apple, enter, in, open, up), and in the middle of the expression “uh-oh.”
•
The ‫ ח‬sounds like the “ch” in the name of the German composer Bach, the Scottish word
loch (“lake”), and expressions such as “lachaim!” or “chutzpah.” (The sign [h]
technically represents a pharyngeal fricative in the International Phonetic Alphabet,
though we pronounce the ‫ ח‬today more as the uvular fricative “ch” described above.)
•
Even though in Modern Hebrew the ‫ ע‬is usually pronounced the same way as the ‫א‬, the
original pronunciation was a more emphatic sound (almost like gulping) at the back of
the throat. We’ll see in later units how this makes the ‫ ע‬behave differently from the ‫א‬.
•
The ‫א‬, ‫ה‬, and ‫ ע‬can be silent in modern pronunciation when they appear at the end of a
ָ , ‫ ָבּנָה‬, and ‫) ָשׁ ַמע‬.
word (e.g. in words like ‫ק ָרא‬
Unit 1
9
Homework
1. Practice writing the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Read the letters aloud
(using their names and/or their pronunciations with any vowel) as you write
them.
* The lower part of the starred letter should continue below the line.
*
Unit 1
10
2. Read aloud the Hebrew words on the left. Match them to their transliterations in
the middle and to their definitions on the right.
‫אָח‬
‫ֲא ָרם‬
‫ֶאל‬
‫ִמן‬
‫ַעל‬
‫לֹא‬
‫אָמר‬
ַ
’ărām
lō’
’āh
’el
’āmar
min
‘al
to, towards
brother
no, not
Aram (Syria)
upon
he said
from
3. Read aloud the following words from the vocabulary list and write the
consonants of the appropriate word under each picture below.
‫נֵר‬
a)
e)
‫ֵאם‬
‫אם‬
‫ָהר‬
ָ‫נ‬
‫ֶל ֶחם‬
‫ַהר‬
‫ַעם‬
‫ַער‬
ַ‫נ‬
b)
c)
d)
f)
g)
h)
Unit 1
11
‫ָראָה‬
4. Read the following Hebrew words aloud and transliterate their consonants into
Latin script.
‫ַחל‬
ַ‫נ‬
‫ָה ַלם‬
‫נָא‬
‫ָח ָרה‬
‫אַחר‬
ַ
‫ָמה‬
‫אָמן‬
ַ
‫ָע ָנה‬
n a h a l
“nahal”
__ā__a__
__ā__
__ā__ā__
__a__a__
__ā__
__ā__a__
__ā__ā__
Unit 1
12
Recommended Bibliography
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§5-6 = pp. 24-35)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996. (§5 = pp. 18-33)
3. Lambdin, T.O., Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Norwich, 1976. (XIII-XVI)
Unit 1
13
Unit 2
The Hebrew Alphabet Continued
Unit Description:
In our second unit we will continue to learn about the Hebrew alphabet and cover the rest of it.
At the end of the unit we will be able to recognize all 23 of the Hebrew letters.
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
30
Unit 2
15
Vocabulary
Category
Nouns
Number
Verbs
m. = masculine
Hebrew
Transliteration Pronunciation
English
‫אָב‬
’āb
’av
‫אָדם‬
ָ
’ādām
’adam
‫ֶא ֶרץ‬
’éres
’érets
‫ֶבּגֶד‬
béged
béged
‫ֵבּן‬
‫ַבּת‬
‫יָד‬
‫ֶלד‬
ֶ‫י‬
‫יָם‬
‫ֶמ ֶל ְך‬
‫ֵעץ‬
‫ֵשׁם‬
‫ֶע ֶשׂר‬
‫ָבּ ָרא‬
‫ָק ָרא‬
bēn
ben
son (m.s.)
bat
bat
daughter (f.s.)
yād
yad
hand (f.s.)
yéled
yéled
child (m.s.)
yām
yam
sea (m.s.)
mélek
mélekh
king (m.s.)
‘ēs
’ets
tree, wood (m.s.)
šēm
shem
name (m.s.)
‘éśer
’éser
ten
bārā’
bara
he created
qārā’
kara
he called
f. = feminine
s. = singular
See this website for more practice with the Hebrew alphabet:
http://hebrewverb.hul.huji.ac.il/newtest/pre_abc.html
Unit 2
16
father (m.s.)
man,
humankind (m.s.)
earth, land (f.s.)
garment,
clothing (m.s.)
Slides from the Unit
Unit 2
17
Unit 2
18
Unit 2
19
Unit 2
20
Unit 2
21
Unit 2
22
Unit 2
23
Unit 2
24
Grammatical Remarks
In this unit, we learn the remaining letters of the Hebrew alphabet.
In the charts below, there are five columns for each of the letters:
1. The Hebrew letter
2. The Hebrew name of the letter
3. The transliteration of the letter (i.e. how we represent the letter in Latin script)
4. The Modern Hebrew pronunciation of the letter
5. An example of this sound in an English word
The Letters ‫פ‬-‫כ‬-‫ב‬
Hebrew Letter
Name
Transliteration
Pronunciation
English Example
‫בּ‬
‫ב‬
‫ךּ‬/‫כּ‬
‫ך‬/‫כ‬
‫ףּ‬/‫פּ‬
‫ף‬/‫פ‬
bet
vet
kaf
khaf
peh
feh
b
b
k
k
p
p
b
v
k
kh
p
f
bat
cave
keep
Bach
pen
if
•
With the dagesh (the dot in the middle), these letters are pronounced as plosive
consonants in which the air flow through the mouth stops completely. Without the
dagesh they are pronounced as fricative consonants in which the air flow is only partly
blocked.
•
The pronunciation of the ‫ך‬/‫ כ‬is very similar to that of the ‫ח‬, but note that we use a
different transliteration in order to distinguish between them.
•
The “final letters” ‫ ך‬and ‫ ף‬are the forms that the letters ‫ כ‬and ‫ פ‬take at the end of a word.
Unit 2
25
The Letters ‫ת‬-‫ד‬-‫ג‬
Hebrew Letter
Name
Transliteration
Pronunciation
English Example
‫גּ‬
‫ג‬
‫דּ‬
‫ד‬
‫תּ‬
‫ת‬
gímel
gímel
dálet
dálet
tav
tav
g
g
d
d
t
t
g
g
d
d
t
t
good
good
dog
dog
tea
tea
•
With the dagesh (the dot in the middle), these letters are pronounced as plosive
consonants in which the air flow through the mouth stops completely. In the history of
the Hebrew language, these three letters were probably pronounced as fricative
consonants in which the air flow is only partly blocked, just as in the group above. But in
the Modern Hebrew pronunciation, this original difference is no longer pronounced.
(Note that we still distinguish between the transliterations with and without the dagesh.)
The Letters ‫י‬-‫ו‬
Hebrew Letter
Name
Transliteration
Pronunciation
English Example
‫ו‬
‫י‬
vav
yod
w
y
v
y
vine
you
•
These two letters can also mark vowels, which we’ll learn in Unit 3.
The Letters ‫צ‬-‫ס‬-‫ז‬
Hebrew Letter
Name
Transliteration
‫ז‬
‫ס‬
‫ץ‬/‫צ‬
•
•
Pronunciation
English Example
záyin
z
z
zebra
sámekh
s
s
say
tsádeh
s
ts
cats
The “final letter” ‫ ץ‬is the form that the letter ‫ צ‬takes at the end of a word.
Unlike in English, the sound “ts” of the ‫ צ‬is a single consonant and can appear at the
beginning of a word, just like any other letter.
Unit 2
26
The Letters ‫שׁ‬-‫שׂ‬-‫ק‬-‫ט‬
Hebrew Letter
Name
Transliteration
Pronunciation
English Example
‫ט‬
‫ק‬
‫שׂ‬
‫שׁ‬
tet
qof
sin
shin
t
q
ś
š
t
k
s
sh
tea
keep
say
ship
•
There is no difference in modern pronunciation between the ‫ ט‬and the ‫ת‬, but we
distinguish them in transliteration because these are two separate letters in Hebrew and
were historically distinguished in pronunciation.
•
Note that the location of the dot at the top of the letter ‫ ש‬is the only indicator of whether
to pronounce [s] or [sh].
Below is a summary tablet of the entire Hebrew alphabet, organized in alphabetical order:
The Hebrew “Alephbet”
Pronunciation Key:
a
e
eh
i
o
u
h
*
́
[ɑ] as in “father”
[ε] as in “let”
[eɪ] as in “day”
[i] as in “meet”
[o] as in “open”
[u] as in “boot”
[x] as in “Bach”
glottal stop (cutting off of the air flow)
marks the accent in a two-syllable word
Unit 2
27
Hebrew Letter
Name
Transliteration
Pronunciation
English Example
‫א‬
‫בּ‬
‫ב‬
‫גּ‬
‫ג‬
‫דּ‬
‫ד‬
‫ה‬
‫ו‬
‫ז‬
‫ח‬
‫ט‬
‫י‬
‫ךּ‬/‫כּ‬
‫ך‬/‫כ‬
‫ל‬
‫ם‬/‫מ‬
‫ן‬/‫נ‬
‫ס‬
‫ע‬
‫ףּ‬/‫פּ‬
‫ף‬/‫פ‬
‫ץ‬/‫צ‬
‫ק‬
‫ר‬
‫שׂ‬
‫שׁ‬
‫תּ‬
‫ת‬
álef
bet
vet
gímel
gímel
dálet
dálet
heh
vav
záyin
het
tet
yod
kaf
khaf
lámed
mem
nun
sámekh
áyin
peh
feh
tsádeh
qof
resh
sin
shin
tav
tav
’
b
b
g
g
d
d
h
w
z
h
t
y
k
k
l
m
n
s
‘
p
p
s
q
r
ś
š
t
t
’
b
v
g
g
d
d
h
v
z
h
t
y
k
kh
l
m
n
s
’
p
f
ts
k
r
s
sh
t
t
honor/uh*oh
bat
cave
good
good
dog
dog
horse
vine
zebra
Bach
tea
you
keep
Bach
light
map
new
say
honor/uh*oh
pen
if
cats
keep
air
say
ship
tea
tea
Unit 2
28
Homework
1. Practice writing the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Read the letters aloud
(using their names and/or their pronunciations with any vowel) as you write
them.
* The lower part of the starred letters should continue below the line.
*
Unit 2
29
*
*
*
*
Unit 2
30
2. Read the following Hebrew words aloud, and transliterate their consonants into
Latin script.
‫ָה ַל ְך‬
h ālak
‫אָמר‬
ַ
__ā__a__
‫ָכּ ַתב‬
__ā__a__
‫ָשׁ ַמע‬
__ā__a__
‫ַתּ ַחת‬
__a__a__
‫ָפּ ַרץ‬
__ā__a__
‫ָשׁ ַכב‬
__ā__a__
‫ָסף‬
ַ‫י‬
__ā__a__
“halakh”
Unit 2
31
3. Read aloud the Hebrew words on the left. Match them to their transliterations in
the middle and to their definitions on the right.
Part A:
‫אָב‬
‫ֶלד‬
ֶ‫י‬
‫יָד‬
‫ֵשׁם‬
‫ֶבּגֶד‬
‫ֶמ ֶל ְך‬
‫ֶע ֶשׂר‬
‫יָם‬
šēm
king
béged
father
’āb
name
mélek
hand
yām
child
yād
sea
yéled
ten
‘éśer
garment
Part B:
‫ֶא ֶרץ‬
bēn
tree
‫ֵבּן‬
‫ַבּת‬
‫ֵעץ‬
‫ָק ָרא‬
‫אָדם‬
ָ
‫ָבּ ָרא‬
‘ēs
man
qārā’
son
’ādām
he called
bārā’
daughter
’éres
he created
land
bat
Unit 2
32
4. Transliterate the consonants of the words below into Hebrew. Read the Hebrew
words aloud (using an [e] vowel between consonants) and find them in the
word search.
‘ḗmeq
šémeš
‘ésem
béten
négeb
‘ébed
gézer
‘ḗśeb
‫עמק‬
__ __ __
__ __ __
__ __ __
__ __ __
__ __ __
“’émek”
__ __ __
__ __ __
Unit 2
33
Recommended Bibliography
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§5-6 = pp. 24-35)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996. (§5 = pp. 18-33)
3. Lambdin, T.O., Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Norwich, 1976. (XIII-XVI)
Unit 2
34
Unit 3
The Hebrew Vowels
Unit Description:
After learning the letters and consonants we will begin to learn about the Hebrew vowels. We will
start with the history of the Hebrew vowels notation and get familiar with the first vowel, [a].
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
45
Unit 3
35
Vocabulary
Category
Hebrew
Transliteration Pronunciation
English
‫אוֹר‬
’ôr
’or
‫ִאישׁ‬
’îš
’ish
‫ָבּ ָשׂר‬
bāśār
basar
‫גּוֹי‬
gôy
goy
‫ָדּ ָבר‬
dābār
davar
‫ֶדּ ֶר ְך‬
dérek
dérekh
‫יוֹם‬
‫ִעיר‬
yôm
yom
day (m.s.)
‘îr
’ir
city, town (f.s.)
‫ָע ָפר‬
‘āpār
’afar
tôb
tov
good, pleasing
rā‘
ra
bad, evil
Preposition
‫טוֹב‬
‫ָרע‬
‫ֵבּין‬
bên
ben
between
Conjunction
‫ִכּי‬
kî
ki
that; because;
when
‫ָה ַל ְך‬
hālak
halakh
‫ָע ָשׂה‬
‘āśāh
’asa
Nouns
Adjectives*
Verbs
m. = masculine
f. = feminine
b. = both m. and f.
light (m.s.)
man, person,
husband (m.s.)
flesh (m.s.)
nation,
people (m.s.)
word; thing;
matter (m.s.)
way (road,
manner) (b.s.)
dust,
dry earth (m.s.)
he walked;
he went
he did;
he made
s. = singular
* Unless stated otherwise, all adjectives are given in the masculine singular form.
Unit 3
36
Slides from the Unit
Unit 3
37
Unit 3
38
Unit 3
39
Unit 3
40
Unit 3
41
Unit 3
42
Unit 3
43
Unit 3
44
Grammatical Remarks
In this unit, we begin to learn about the Hebrew vowels. When Hebrew was first written down
(10th c. B.C.E.), the writers only wrote the consonants. Because they didn’t write vowels, it
would be difficult for anyone who wasn’t familiar with the text to know what words were
written. Their solution to this difficulty was to add vowel letters, a process which happened in
several stages:
In the first stage (9th-6th c. B.C.E.), they only added vowels at the end of words. The new
“vowels” were simply the consonants ‫י‬, ‫ו‬, and ‫ה‬, which could now act at the end of words as the
vowels î (‫)י‬, û (‫)ו‬, and āh/ēh/ōh (‫)ה‬. We call each of these vowels a “mater lectionis,” which is
Latin for “reading mother” (the plural is “matres lectionis”). Just as a mother helps her child to
read, so these letters help us know which vowels to read.
In the next stage of Hebrew writing (after the exile of 586 B.C.E.), the matres lectionis ‫ י‬and ‫ו‬
began to be used inside words in addition to at the end of words. In this stage, ‫ י‬and ‫ ו‬can each
represent more than one vowel (‫ = י‬î or ê; ‫ = ו‬ô or û). ‫ ה‬continued to represent the vowels āh,
ēh, and ōh only at the end of the word. It is important to remember that the mater lectionis
system of vowel writing is not applied consistently throughout the entire Hebrew Bible, which is
made up of many texts written at different times and in different situations. Therefore, we might
see the same word written in one place with the mater (e.g. ‫מר‬
ֵ ‫ )שׁוֹ‬and in another place without
it (e.g. ‫מר‬
ֵ ֹ‫)שׁ‬.
The scribes who copied the biblical text became concerned that their oral tradition of how to
vocalize the text would be forgotten over time. In the final stage of Hebrew vowel writing
(7th-9th c. C.E.), they developed a system of diacritic points to represent each of the vowels. This
way, their oral tradition could be permanently recorded in more detail than the system of mater
lectionis allowed. (There are several different traditions of how to vocalize the biblical text. The
one most widely used is the Tiberian tradition, which was developed by the school of scribes in
the city of Tiberias on the Sea of Galilee.) Note that the addition of the diacritic system did not
erase the previous system of mater lectionis. Part of what makes biblical Hebrew transliteration
so complicated is that all of these systems now exist simultaneously, one on top of the other, and
we want to be able to represent in Latin script exactly what we see in the Hebrew.
Unit 3
45
The “A” Vowel
A
Hebrew
Transliteration
Name
a
ā
āh
patáh
Short Vowel
Long Vowel: Plain
Long Vowel: Mater Lectionis
qamáts
qamáts malé
•
All “A” vowels are pronounced [ɑ] as in “father.”
•
The vowel sound under each letter is pronounced after the consonant.
•
Vowel names are written here as they are pronounced, not as they are transliterated.
•
It is customary in regard to Hebrew vowels to speak of length as well as quality. Though
this distinction is probably valid for the earlier pronunciation, it is doubtful whether
vowel quantity (length) played any important part in the original Tiberian tradition. In
other words, even though we speak of “short” and “long” vowels, we don’t distinguish
the length of the Hebrew vowels in our pronunciation. The length is important to note,
however, because later it will help us to explain certain grammatical phenomena in
Hebrew.
Unit 3
46
Homework
1. Read aloud the following words from the vocabulary list and write the
appropriate word under each picture below. (Write the [ ָ ] and [ ַ ] vowels
where they appear, but ignore the rest of the vowel pointing.)
‫טוֹב‬
a)
‫ָע ָפר‬
‫טוב‬
‫ִעיר‬
‫ָה ַל ְך‬
‫ֶדּ ֶר ְך‬
‫ִאישׁ‬
c)
b)
d)
f)
‫ָרע‬
e)
g)
h)
Unit 3
47
‫אוֹר‬
2. Read aloud the Hebrew words on the left. Match them to their transliterations in
the middle and to their definitions on the right.
‫ָבּ ָשׂר‬
‫גּוֹי‬
‫ָדּ ָבר‬
‫יוֹם‬
‫ֵבּין‬
‫ִכּי‬
‫ָע ָשׂה‬
yôm
he did / made
bên
flesh
bāśār
between
gôy
day
‘āśāh
nation, people
dābār
that; because
kî
word; matter
3. Read the following Hebrew words aloud and transliterate them into Latin script.
‫ָל ַקח‬
‫ָבּ ָכה‬
lāqah
“lakah”
‫ָהב‬
ָ‫ז‬
‫ַדּ ַעת‬
‫ָצ ָבא‬
‫ָהיָה‬
‫גָּאַל‬
‫אַחר‬
ַ
Unit 3
48
4. Write the Hebrew words represented by the following transliterations, then read
the Hebrew words aloud.
gam
‫גַּם‬
“gam”
dāg
’āz
bad
māh
’ap
nā’
śar
Unit 3
49
Recommended Bibliography
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§7-9 = pp. 35-50)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996.
(§6-7 = pp. 34-50)
3. Lambdin, T.O., Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Norwich, 1976. (XVII; XXV-XXVII)
Unit 3
50
Unit 4
The Vowels E-I-O-U
Unit Description:
In this unit we will continue with the rest of the Hebrew vowels and learn about the vowels
[e-i-o-u]. We can already start to read short verses from the story of the creation (Genesis 1).
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
60
Unit 4
51
Vocabulary
Category
Nouns
Proper
Noun
Hebrew
Transliteration Pronunciation
‫בּ ֶֹקר‬
‫ָהב‬
ָ‫ז‬
‫ח ֶֹשׁ ְך‬
bṓqer
bóker
morning (m.s.)
zāhāb
zahav
gold (m.s.)
hōš́ ek
hóshekh
darkness (m.s.)
‫ֶכּ ֶסף‬
késep
késef
‫ַמיִ ם‬
‫ֶע ֶצם‬
‫ֶע ֶרב‬
máyim
máyim
water(s) (m.p.)
‘ésem
’étsem
bone, self (m.s.)
‘éreb
’érev
evening (m.s.)
‫ֶצ ֶלם‬
sélem
tsélem
‫ָשׁ ַמיִ ם‬
šāmáyim
shamáyim
‫ָדּוִ ד‬
dāwid
david
‫ ָגּדֹל‬/ ‫גָּדוֹל‬
gādôl / gādōl
gadol
‫ ָק ָטן‬/ ‫ָקטֹן‬
qātōn / qātān
katon / katan
small,
insignificant
‫ֶא ָחד‬
’ehād
’ehad
one (m.)
‫ָהיָה‬
hāyāh
haya
‫ָל ַקח‬
lāqah
lakah
Adjectives
Number
Verbs
m. = masculine
English
f. = feminine
s. = singular
Unit 4
52
silver,
money (m.s.)
image,
likeness (m.s.)
heaven(s),
sky (m.p.)
David
great (in size or
importance)
he/it was,
it happened
he took
p. = plural
Slides from the Unit
Unit 4
53
Unit 4
54
Unit 4
55
Unit 4
56
Unit 4
57
Unit 4
58
Unit 4
59
Unit 4
60
Grammatical Remarks
In this unit, we meet the remaining basic Hebrew vowels. Notes to remember:
•
The vowel sound under each letter is pronounced after the consonant.
•
In the vowel charts below, vowel names are written as they are pronounced, not as they
are transliterated. Pronunciations in brackets [ ] follow the International Phonetic
Alphabet.
•
It is customary in regard to Hebrew vowels to speak of length as well as quality. Though
this distinction is probably valid for the earlier pronunciation, it is doubtful whether
vowel quantity (length) played any important part in the original Tiberian tradition. In
other words, even though we speak of “short” and “long” vowels, we don’t distinguish
the length of the Hebrew vowels in our pronunciation. The length is important to note,
however, because later it will help us to explain certain grammatical phenomena in
Hebrew.
The “E” Vowel
E
Hebrew
Short Vowel
Long Vowel: Plain
Long Vowel: Mater Lectionis
•
Transliteration
Name
e
ē
ê
eh
ê
ēh
segól
tsére
segól malé
tsére malé
Most “E” vowels are pronounced [ε] as in “let”; but sometimes the long “E” vowels with
a mater lectionis are pronounced more like the diphthong [eɪ] as in “day.”
•
Remember that the vowels ‫ ֶה‬/ -eh and ‫ ֵה‬/ -ēh appear only at the end of words, while
/ ê and ‫ ֵי‬/ ê can appear either at the end or in the middle.
Unit 4
61
‫ֶי‬
The “I” Vowel
I
Hebrew
Transliteration
Name
i
î
híriq
Short Vowel
Long Vowel: Mater Lectionis
híriq malé
•
All “I” vowels are pronounced [i] as in “meet.”
•
Remember that the vowel ‫ ִ י‬/ î can appear either in the middle or at the end of a word.
The “O” Vowel
O
Hebrew
Transliteration
Name
ō
ô
ōh
hólem
Long Vowel: Plain
Long Vowel: Mater Lectionis
hólem malé
•
All “O” vowels are pronounced [o] as in “open.”
•
The short [o] vowel is a special case and will be discussed in another unit.
•
Unlike other vowels, the hōlem is written above and to the left of the consonant it
follows.
•
Remember that the vowel ‫ ֹה‬/ -ōh appears only at the end of words, while ‫ וֹ‬/ ô can
appear at the end or in the middle.
•
The vowel ‫ ֹה‬/ -ōh is very rare. When it appears, it is usually in proper nouns (e.g.
‫) ְשׁלֹמֹה‬.
The “U” Vowel
U
Hebrew
Transliteration
Name
u
û
qibbúts
Short Vowel
Long Vowel: Mater Lectionis
shúreq
•
All “U” vowels are pronounced [u] as in “boot.”
•
Remember that the ‫ וּ‬/ û vowel can appear either at the end or in the middle of a word.
Unit 4
62
Homework
1. Read aloud the following words from the vocabulary list and write the
appropriate word under each picture below (write both the consonants and the
vowels).
‫ָקטֹן‬
a)
‫ֶצ ֶלם‬
‫ֶצ ֶלם‬
‫ֶע ֶצם‬
‫ַמיִ ם‬
‫ֶכּ ֶסף‬
c)
b)
d)
f)
‫ָהב‬
ָ‫ז‬
e)
g)
h)
Unit 4
63
‫גָּדוֹל‬
‫בּ ֶֹקר‬
2. Read aloud the Hebrew words on the left. Match them to their transliterations in
the middle and fill in the blanks with the vowels. Then match the
transliterations to the definitions on the right.
‫ח ֶֹשׁ ְך‬
‫ֶע ֶרב‬
‫ָשׁ ַמיִ ם‬
‫ָדּוִ ד‬
‫ֶא ָחד‬
‫ָהיָה‬
‫ָל ַקח‬
š_m_y_m
he was
d_w_d
evening
h ō š e k
David
h_y_h
sky
‘_r_b
darkness
l _ q _ h
one
’ _ h _ d
he took
3. Read the following Hebrew words aloud, then sort them into the appropriate
columns according to their vowels.
‫ָרחוֹק‬
‫ֶפּ ַסח‬
‫נ ֵֹשׂא‬
__ ā __ ô __
‫ָעזוּב‬
‫ָקרוֹב‬
__ ā __ û __
__ e __ a __
‫ָרחוֹק‬
4. Transliterate the words below into Hebrew.
Read the Hebrew words aloud and find them
in the word search.
’ādôn
‫אָדוֹן‬
‫ָכּתוּב‬
“’adon”
bêsāh
yōšēb
nāśî’
šēbet
šumātî
Unit 4
64
‫א ֵֹמר‬
‫ֶס ַלע‬
__ ō __ ē __
Recommended Bibliography
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§7-9 = pp. 35-50)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996.
(§6-7 = pp. 34-50)
3. Lambdin, T.O., Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Norwich, 1976. (XVII; XXV-XXVII)
Unit 4
65
Unit 5
The 'Dagesh' and Syllable Division
Unit Description:
After discussing the Hebrew consonants and vowels we will learn how Hebrew marks
gemination (doubling of a consonant) and how to divide words into syllables. We will also read
and discuss verses from the story of the tree of knowledge (Genesis 3).
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
75
Unit 5
67
Vocabulary
Category
Nouns
Conjunction
Hebrew
Transliteration Pronunciation
English
‫ִא ָשּׁה‬
’iššāh
’isha
woman, wife (f.s.)
‫ַבּיִ ת‬
báyit
báyit
house, dwellingplace (m.s.)
‫ַחיָּה‬
hayyāh
haya
animal, living
thing (f.s.)
‫ַחיִּ ים‬
‫ֶח ֶרב‬
‫ָחשׁ‬
ָ‫נ‬
hayyîm
hayim
life (m.p.)
héreb
hérev
sword (f.s.)
nāhāš
nahash
snake (m.s.)
‫קוֹל‬
qôl
kol
sound, voice
(m.s.)
‫ָשׂ ֶדה‬
śādeh
sade
‫ֶפּן‬
pen
pen
field, open
country (m.s.)
lest
behold!,
Interjection
‫ִהנֵּה‬
hinnēh
hine
“see (here), …”
(draws attention
to what follows)
Interrogatives
Adverb
‫אַיֵּה‬
‫ִמי‬
‫ָשׁם‬
’ayyēh
’aye
where?
mî
mi
who?
šām
sham
there, thither
‫אָכל‬
ַ
’ākal
’akhal
‫ִה ִגּיד‬
higgîd
higid
Verbs
m. = masculine
f. = feminine
s. = singular
Unit 5
68
he ate,
he consumed
he declared,
he told
p. = plural
Slides from the Unit
Unit 5
69
Unit 5
70
Unit 5
71
Unit 5
72
Unit 5
73
Unit 5
74
Unit 5
75
Grammatical Remarks
Syllable Division
A syllable is a sound unit that includes a vowel and possibly one or more consonants. For
example, the word “water” has two syllables: 1.[wa] – 2. [ter]. The basic rule of Hebrew
syllables is that each syllable must begin with a single consonant followed by at least one vowel.
(This rule has very few exceptions.) There may or may not be a consonant at the end of the
syllable, but there must be one at the beginning. Remember that there are letters that function as
mater lectionis vowels. For example, the ‫ י‬in ‫[ ִמין‬mîn] is part of a vowel; so this syllable is
consonant-vowel-consonant, not consonant-vowel-consonant-consonant.
There are two regular kinds of syllables in Hebrew:
1. Open syllable – composed of a Consonant plus a Vowel (CV syllable)
2. Closed syllable – composed of a Consonant, Vowel, and Consonant (CVC syllable)
The Dagesh
The dagesh is the dot that can appear in the middle of a Hebrew letter. There are two different
kinds of dagesh, each representing a different phonetic phenomenon. The first, called the “weak
dagesh,” only appears in the ‫“ בּג''ד כּפ''ת‬begad-kefat” letters and marks the consonant as a
plosive (e.g. [b]) instead of a fricative (e.g. [v]), as we’ve already discussed in Unit 2. The other,
called the “strong dagesh,” can appear in any letter of the Hebrew alphabet (excluding -‫ח‬-‫ה‬-‫א‬
‫ר‬-‫)ע‬, and it doubles the letter so that it actually represents two consonants and not just one (e.g.
‫[ = מּ‬mm]). Note that the weak dagesh and the strong dagesh look identical in Hebrew writing,
though they’re transliterated differently, as in the word ‫[ ַבּ ַבּיִ ת‬babbáyit].
How do we tell the difference between the weak dagesh and the strong dagesh in the ‫בּג''ד‬
‫ כּפ''ת‬letters? The weak dagesh (the single plosive) is found in a letter that stands at the
beginning of a syllable when it is immediately preceded by another consonant (e.g. ‫[ יִ ְשׁבֹּר‬yišbōr]) or when it stands at the beginning of a word (e.g. ‫[ ָבּ ָרא‬bārā’]). The dagesh in a ‫בּג''ד‬
‫ כּפ''ת‬letter is a strong dagesh only when it is directly preceded by a vowel (e.g. ‫[ ִשׁ ֵבּר‬šibbēr]).
Stress
The stress (emphasis, accent) of Hebrew words always falls either on the last syllable (ultimate
stress, e.g. ‫ָמר‬
ֵ ‫[ נ‬nāmḗr]) or on the second-to-last syllable (penultimate stress, e.g. ‫ֶפן‬
ֶ ‫[ גּ‬gépen]).
Because ultimate stress is the most frequently used, we will mark only penultimate stress in our
transliteration. If there is no accent marked, you may assume that the accent is on the last
syllable.
Unit 5
76
Homework
1. Using the Unit 5 vocabulary list, fill in the crossword puzzle below with the
correct Hebrew words. (Each square will hold one letter and the vowel
pointing, if any, that follows it.)
1.
Across:
‫ם‬
‫י‬
‫ִיּ‬
2. life
2.
‫ַח‬
3. behold!
5. who?
4.
6. voice
3.
Down:
1. there
6.
5.
2. animal
3. he told
4. he ate
2. Match the words below to their definitions. Read each word aloud (see the
pronunciations in the vocabulary list) and write whether each has ultimate or
penultimate stress.
‫אַיֵּה‬
‫ִא ָשּׁה‬
‫ַבּיִ ת‬
‫ֶח ֶרב‬
‫ָחשׁ‬
ָ‫נ‬
‫ֶפּן‬
‫ָשׂ ֶדה‬
house
snake
where?
ultimate
woman
sword
field
lest
Unit 5
77
3. Transliterate each word below, keeping the two syllables of each word on either
side of the dividing line.
‫ָתּ ִמיד‬
‫ִכּ ֵסּא‬
tā
|
mîd
____ | ____
‫ַמ ֶטּה‬
‫אָדם‬
ָ
____ | ____
‫ֶל ֶחם‬
____ | ____
‫ַעמּוֹן‬
____ | ____
‫ָל ָמּה‬
____ | ____
‫ָמקוֹם‬
____ | ____
____ | ____
4. Arrange the words from the following list into two columns according to
whether the dagesh in each word is weak (single plosive) or strong (doubled
consonant).
‫ַל ָדּה‬
ְ‫י‬
‫ִא ַבּד‬
‫ָכּ ָלה‬
‫תּוֹרה‬
ָ
‫ִק ַדּשׁ‬
Weak Dagesh
‫ִסגַּר‬
‫ָבּ ָרא‬
Strong Dagesh
‫ַל ָדּה‬
ְ‫י‬
Unit 5
78
‫ַס ֵפּר‬
Recommended Bibliography
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§12-13 = pp. 55-56)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996. (§10 = pp. 56-57)
3. Lambdin, T.O., Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Norwich, 1976. (XVIII; XXIV-XXV)
Unit 5
79
Unit 6
Nouns and Adjectives
Unit Description:
Now, after we are able to read and pronounce the Hebrew sounds, we will turn to discussing the
morphology of Hebrew words. We will start with the nouns and adjectives and learn about their
basic forms and grammar. We will learn these issues while continuing the discussion on the
story of the tree of knowledge (Genesis 3).
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
90
Unit 6
81
Vocabulary
Category
Nouns
Adjectives
Verbs
m. = masculine
Hebrew
‫ֶא ֶבן‬
‫גַּן‬
‫חוֹמה‬
ָ
‫ָמקוֹם‬
‫סוּס‬
‫ַעיִ ן‬
‫ָשׁנָה‬
‫ָקן‬
ֵ‫ז‬
‫ָח ָכם‬
‫ַצ ִדּיק‬
‫ָקדוֹשׁ‬
‫ָר ָשׁע‬
Transliteration Pronunciation
English
’ében
’éven
stone (f.s.)
gan
gan
garden (m.s.)
hômāh
homa
wall (f.s.)
māqôm
makom
place (m.s.)
sûs
sus
horse (m.s.)
‘áyin
’áyin
eye (f.s.)
šānāh
shana
year (f.s.)
zāqēn
zaken
old
hākām
hakham
wise
saddîq
tsadik
just, righteous
qādôš
kadosh
sacred, holy
rāšā‘
rasha
wicked
‫ָתּ ִמים‬
tāmîm
tamim
‫ָדע‬
ַ‫י‬
yāda‘
yada
‫ָשׁ ַמע‬
šāma‘
shama
f. = feminine
s. = singular
Unit 6
82
complete, sound,
blameless
he knew
he heard,
he listened
Slides from the Unit
Unit 6
83
Unit 6
84
Unit 6
85
Unit 6
86
Unit 6
87
Unit 6
88
Unit 6
89
Unit 6
90
Unit 6
91
Grammatical Remarks
Nouns and Adjectives
Every noun in Hebrew has both number (singular or plural) and gender (masculine or feminine).
The masculine singular form has no special ending, but every other form has a suffix that marks
the word as feminine singular (accented ‫) ָה‬, masculine plural (‫) ִ ים‬, or feminine plural (‫)וֹת‬.
The mater lectionis is not always used, so [‫ ] ִ ם‬and [‫ ] ֹת‬mean exactly the same thing as [‫] ִ ים‬
and [‫]וֹת‬.
Singular
Plural
Masculine
--
‫ִ ים‬-
Feminine
‫ָה‬-
‫וֹת‬-
Every adjective has a gender and number that matches the noun it describes. This agreement is
an important difference between Hebrew and English. Another difference is that in Hebrew,
unlike in English, the adjective follows the noun it describes:
Singular
Plural
Masculine
‫סוּס טוֹב‬
‫טוֹבים‬
ִ ‫סוּסים‬
ִ
Feminine
‫טוֹבה‬
ָ ‫סוּסה‬
ָ
‫סוּסוֹת טוֹבוֹת‬
Irregular Nouns
Even though the above charts show the regular forms, there are a number of irregular nouns in
which the gender is not predictably marked. Many Hebrew nouns, especially those with an
arbitrary grammatical gender (e.g. ‫א ֶבן‬
ֶ “stone”) and not a natural gender (e.g. ‫“ ַמ ְל ָכּה‬queen”),
are irregular and may look like the opposite gender.
The plural endings [‫ ] ִ ים‬and [‫ ]וֹת‬may be used for either gender, and feminine singular nouns
are often not marked by the characteristic [‫ ] ָה‬ending. However, if the accented [‫ ] ָה‬ending
does appear, the noun must be feminine singular; this form will never be masculine. (Note that
this feminine singular [‫ ] ָה‬ending must be accented. If this suffix appears in a word where it is
not accented, e.g. ‫[ ַליְ ָלה‬láylāh], the ending is not a feminine indicator.)
Unit 6
92
A solution to this problem of irregular nouns is that the form of the adjective will always show
the correct number and gender of the noun it matches. This phenomenon allows us to see the
gender of any irregular noun by looking at the adjective that describes it.
Singular
Plural
Masculine
‫גָּג גָּדוֹל‬
‫גַּגּוֹת ְגּד ִֹלים‬
Feminine
‫ֶא ֶבן ְגּד ָֹלה‬
‫ֲא ָבנִ ים ְגּדֹלוֹת‬
Unit 6
93
Homework
1. Read aloud the following words from the vocabulary list and write the
appropriate word under each picture below.
‫גַּן‬
‫ַעיִ ן‬
‫ָדע‬
ַ‫י‬
a)
‫ֶא ֶבן‬
‫חוֹמה‬
ָ
‫ָדע‬
ַ‫י‬
b)
d)
c)
‫סוּס‬
e)
f)
g)
Unit 6
94
‫ָשׁ ַמע‬
2. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English.
* Note: We include the verse references not only for your own interest, but also
because the context may help with the translation where several meanings are
possible. Try to think of possible translations, then check the verse to get the
context.
‫ימה‬
ָ ‫( ָשׁנָה ְת ִמ‬Lev. 25:30)
a complete year
‫ָקן‬
ֵ ‫( אָב ז‬Gen. 44:20)
‫( ָמקוֹם ָקדֹשׁ‬Lev. 6:9 Hbrw. / 6:16 Eng.)
‫( ִא ָשּׁה ֲח ָכ ָמה‬2 Sam. 14:2)
‫( גּוֹי ַצ ִדּיק‬Is. 26:2)
‫אָדם ָר ָשׁע‬
ָ (Prov. 11:7)
‫( ַמיִ ם ְקד ִֹשׁים‬Num. 5:17)
3. Match the Hebrew phrases on the left to their English translations on the right.
‫ֶמ ֶל ְך ָגּדֹל‬
‫נְ ָערוֹת טוֹבוֹת‬
‫ְמ ָל ִכים ְגּד ִֹלים‬
‫ַמ ְל ָכּה ְגּד ָֹלה‬
‫טוֹבים‬
ִ ‫נְ ָע ִרים‬
‫ַער טוֹב‬
ַ‫נ‬
‫ְמ ָלכוֹת ְגּדֹלוֹת‬
‫טוֹבה‬
ָ ‫ֲרה‬
ָ ‫ַנע‬
good young men
a great queen
a great king
a good young woman
great kings
good young women
a good young man
great queens
Unit 6
95
4. Sort the following noun-adjective phrases into columns based on their gender.
‫ָקן‬
ֵ ‫ִאישׁ ז‬
‫טוֹבים‬
ִ ‫ִלבּוֹת‬
‫ָשׁים ַצ ִדּיקוֹת‬
ִ‫נ‬
‫ִא ָשּׁה ָר ָעה‬
‫ֶפן ְגּד ָֹלה‬
ֶ‫גּ‬
‫ֶפּה ָקטֹן‬
‫ְלשֹׁנוֹת ַר ִבּים‬
‫ֵעינַיִ ם יָפוֹת‬
Feminine
Masculine
‫ָקן‬
ֵ ‫ִאישׁ ז‬
Unit 6
96
Recommended Bibliography
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§80, §87-88 = pp. 222-224, 241-244)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996.
(§89-91 = pp. 266-275)
3. Lambdin, T.O., Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Norwich, 1976.
(§12, §19, §25, §34 = pp. 3-4, 9, 17-18, 27-28)
Unit 6
97
Unit 7
The 'Shewa'
Unit Description:
In this unit we will go back a little to the realm of the sounds and learn about another vocalic
sign, the 'Shewa'. We will discuss this sign within the framework of the story of the Tower of
Babel (Genesis 11).
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
105
Unit 7
99
Vocabulary
Category
Nouns
Hebrew
Transliteration Pronunciation
English
‫ְבּ ֵה ָמה‬
bəhēmāh
bəhema
beast, animal,
cattle (f.s.)
‫ַליְ ָלה‬
‫ִמ ְג ָדּל‬
láylāh
láyla
night (m.s.)
migdāl
migdal
tower (m.s.)
‫אָך‬
ְ ‫ַמ ְל‬
mal’āk
mal’akh
‫ַמ ְמ ָל ָכה‬
mamlākāh
mamlakha
kingdom (f.s.)
messenger,
angel (m.s.)
‫ֶק ֶדם‬
qédem
kédem
front, east,
ancient times
(m.s.)
‫רֹאשׁ‬
rō’š
rosh
head (m.s.)
‫ָשׂ ָפה‬
śāpāh
safa
‫יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬
‫ֵהם‬
or
‫ֵה ָמּה‬
yiśrā’ēl
yisra’el
hēm
hem
or
or
hḗmmāh
héma
Preposition
‫תוֹך‬
ְ ‫ְבּ‬
bətôk
bətokh
Conjunction
ְ‫ו‬
‫ְמאֹד‬
‫ָבּנָה‬
‫ָמ ָצא‬
wə
və
and
mə’ōd
mə’od
very
bānāh
bana
he built
māsā’
matsa
he found
Proper Noun
Independent
Pronoun
Adverb
Verbs
m. = masculine
f. = feminine
s. = singular
Unit 7
100
lip, language,
edge (f.s.)
Israel
they, those (m.)
in the middle of;
among
Slides from the Unit
Unit 7
101
Unit 7
102
Unit 7
103
Unit 7
104
Unit 7
105
Unit 7
106
Unit 7
107
Unit 7
108
Unit 7
109
Grammatical Remarks
The Shewa
In this unit we meet the Hebrew shewa: [ ְ ]. The special characteristic of the shewa is that it can
sometimes be silent, in which case it is not transliterated or pronounced at all. In other places, it
can be a “moving shewa” (also known as a “vocal shewa” or a “shewa mobile”), in which case it
is transliterated by the sign [ə] and pronounced as a very short [ĕ] vowel.
The basic rule for determining whether a shewa is silent or moving is this: A moving shewa
opens a syllable, and a silent shewa closes a syllable. For example, in the word ‫שׁ ְמרוּ‬
ְ ִ‫י‬
[yiš-mərû], the first shewa is silent and the second shewa is moving. (The moving shewa is
considered to be part of the syllable it opens; it is not a separate vowel that counts as its own
syllable.)
The Moving Shewa
There are three main indicators that a shewa is a moving shewa (i.e. that it opens a syllable).
1. A shewa under the first consonant of a word is moving, as in ‫[ ְבּיָדוֹ‬bəyā-dô].
2. The second of two consecutive shewas (except at the end of a word) is always a moving
shewa, as in ‫[ יִ ְכ ְתּבוּ‬yik-təbû]. (This means that the first of these two shewas is silent.)
3. A shewa under any consonant that is doubled by a strong dagesh is moving, as in
‫[ ִמ ְמּ ָך‬mim-məkā]. (This is basically equivalent to the second rule, since ‫ ְמּ = ְמ ְמ‬.)
The Silent Shewa
There are three main indicators that a shewa is a silent shewa (i.e. that it closes a syllable).
1. A shewa at the end of a word is silent, as in ‫ית ְך‬
ֵ ‫[ ֵבּ‬bê-tēk]. A final shewa is usually
only seen in the letter ‫( ְך‬though in certain cases it can appear in other letters, as in
‫ ָכּ ַת ְב ְתּ‬or ‫אַתּ‬
ְ ) – in other final letters, a silent shewa is implicit, but not usually written.
2. A shewa at the end of any accented syllable is silent, as in ‫[ ֵר ְדנָה‬rḗd-nāh].
3. A shewa after any short vowel (provided that the consonant it marks isn’t doubled by a
ֵ ‫[ ִה ְת ַכּ‬hit-kat-tēb].
dagesh) is silent, as in ‫תּב‬
Unit 7
110
Homework
1. Read aloud the following words from the vocabulary list, and write the
appropriate word under each picture below.
‫ֶק ֶדם‬
a)
‫ִמ ְג ָדּל‬
‫ֶק ֶדם‬
‫ָמ ָצא‬
‫ָשׂ ָפה‬
‫ָבּנָה‬
b)
c)
d)
f)
‫אָך ְבּ ֵה ָמה‬
ְ ‫ַמ ְל‬
e)
g)
h)
Unit 7
111
‫רֹאשׁ‬
2. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English.
‫ִאישׁ טוֹב ְמאֹד‬
a very good man
‫ָהב‬
ָ ‫ֶכּ ֶסף וְ ז‬
‫תוֹך יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬
ְ ‫ְבּ‬
‫ָקטֹן ְמאֹד‬
‫יוֹם וְ ַליְ ָלה‬
‫ַמ ְמ ָל ָכה ְגּדֹ ָלה‬
‫ָח ָכם וְ ַצ ִדּיק‬
3. Read the following Hebrew words aloud and transliterate them into Latin script.
(Note: the syllables bolded in red are accented.)
‫ַר ֵדּן‬
ְ‫י‬
yardēn
“yarden”
‫ְשׁ ַמ ְענָה‬
‫יד ְבּרוּ‬
ַ ִ‫ו‬
‫יִ ְק ְראוּ‬
‫ְספֹ ְרנָה‬
‫ִתּ ְשׁ ְמעוּ‬
‫ָה ַפ ְך‬
‫ִתּ ְתּנוּ‬
Unit 7
112
4. Decide whether the shewa in each word below is a moving shewa or a silent
shewa, and sort the words under the appropriate columns. (Note: the syllables
bolded in red are accented.)
‫ְתּ ִה ָלּה‬
‫ַפּ ְרעֹה‬
‫יִ ְפּלוּ‬
‫ישׁ ְלּחוּ‬
ַ ִ‫ו‬
Moving Shewa
‫ֶמ ֶל ְך‬
‫ְמ ַנ ֶשּׁה‬
Silent Shewa
‫ְתּ ִה ָלּה‬
Unit 7
113
‫יִ ְצ ָחק ֵשׁ ְב ָנה‬
Recommended Bibliography
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§10a-e = pp. 51-52)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996. (§8 = pp. 50-54)
3. Lambdin, T.O., Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Norwich, 1976.
(§10 = pp. XXV-XXVII)
Unit 7
114
Unit 8
Hebrew Word Structure
Unit Description:
The question discussed in this unit is - how does Hebrew create words? We will learn about the
Hebrew terms 'Shoresh' (root) and Mishqal (pattern). We will also read and discuss a few verses
from the story of the flood (Genesis 6-8).
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
120
Unit 8
115
Vocabulary
Category
Hebrew
‫ָדּג‬
Transliteration Pronunciation
dāg
dag
English
fish (m.s.)
generation;
‫ דּוֹר‬/ ‫דֹּר‬
dôr / dōr
dor
period (of time)
(m.s.)
olive-tree,
‫זַיִ ת‬
záyit
záyit
*‫ָז ָכר‬
‫ָח ָמס‬
‫יוֹ ָנה‬
zākār
zakhar
male (m.s.)
hāmās
hamas
violence (m.s.)
yônāh
yona
dove (f.s.)
‫ִמ ְשׁ ָכּן‬
miškān
mishkan
‫ִמ ְשׁ ָפּט‬
mišpāt
mishpat
‫נְ ֵק ָבה‬
‫ֵקץ‬
nəqēbāh
nəkeva
female (f.s.)
qēs
kets
end (m.s.)
Demonstrative
Pronoun
‫ֵא ֶלּה‬
’ḗlleh
’éle
these
Number
‫ְשׁ ַניִ ם‬
‫אוֹ‬
‫ָבּא‬
‫ִצ ָוּה‬
šənáyim
shənáyim
two
’ô
’o
or
bā’
ba
he came, entered
siwwāh
tsiva
he commanded
Nouns
Conjunction
Verbs
m. = masculine
f. = feminine
s. = singular
* ‫ ָז ָכר‬may also appear as an adjective.
Unit 8
116
olive (m.s.)
dwelling-place,
tabernacle (m.s.)
judgment,
justice (m.s.)
Slides from the Unit
Unit 8
117
Unit 8
118
Unit 8
119
Unit 8
120
Unit 8
121
Unit 8
122
Unit 8
123
Unit 8
124
Unit 8
125
Grammatical Remarks
In this unit we deal primarily with the structure of Hebrew words. Most Hebrew words are
built from a set of root letters and from a pattern into which these root letters are inserted.
The combination of these two systems is what creates most Hebrew words.
Roots
Every Hebrew word has a set of root consonants (also called “radicals”). Usually there are three
root letters, though there are a few words that seem to have only two (e.g. ‫אָב‬, ‫)יָד‬. The root
carries the basic semantic range (i.e. field of meaning) of a word. For example, ‫“ עבד‬serve” is
the root of the words ‫“ ֶע ֶבד‬servant,” ‫מ ְע ָבּד‬
ַ “work,” ‫ֻדּה‬
ָ ‫“ ֲעב‬service,” ‫עוֹבד‬
ֵ “Obed” (a personal
name, probably meaning “worshipper,” i.e. one who serves God), and ‫ֲבוֹדה‬
ָ ‫“ ע‬labor, service.”
Patterns / Mishqalim
The three radicals of the root are placed into a particular pattern of vowels, sometimes
accompanied by a prefix and/or suffix. (The Hebrew grammatical term for a word pattern is
‫“ ִמ ְשׁ ָקל‬mishqal.”) Any of the following elements may be part of a word pattern (we use ‫קטל‬
as example root letters):
1. Vowels – Every word pattern must have a characteristic set of vowels. For example,
‫ ָק ָטל‬is a different pattern from ‫ ֶק ֶטל‬. Remember that sometimes a vowel might be
written with a mater lectionis (‫י‬/‫ו‬/‫)ה‬, so these vowel letters are not necessarily part of
the root.
2. The Strong Dagesh – Some patterns (e.g. ‫טּל‬
ָ ‫ ) ַק‬include a strong dagesh, which doubles
one of the consonants of the root.
3. Prefix – Some patterns include a prefix letter. The common prefix letters for nouns are ‫מ‬
and ‫( ת‬as in ‫טל‬
ָ ‫ ִמ ְק‬or ‫) ַתּ ְקטוּל‬. A prefix is part of the pattern, not the root – so if you
see a word that begins with one of these letters, check carefully to see whether it is one of
the three root letters or whether it might be a separate prefix.
4. Suffix – Patterns can sometimes use a feminine ending, as in ‫טל( ִמ ְשׁ ָפּ ָחה‬
ָ ‫ ִמ ְק‬pattern
ַ (‫ ַתּ ְק ֵטל‬pattern with a feminine ending).
with a feminine ending) or ‫תּ ְר ֵע ָלה‬
Unit 8
126
Why is it important to recognize roots and patterns?
Knowing the root can tell you the general field of meaning that a word has, even if you aren’t
familiar with the pattern. The same root can appear in many different patterns, creating families
of words that have related meanings. If you know one or two words in a family, you can guess
the meanings of the other words based on their common root. For example, the root ‫“ מלך‬to
reign” is used in the related words ‫מ ֶל ְך‬
ֶ “king,” ‫לוּכה‬
ָ ‫“ ְמ‬kingship, royalty,” ‫( ִמ ְל ָכּה‬personal
name, probably meaning “queen”), ‫מ ְמ ָל ָכה‬
ַ “kingdom,” and ‫( מ ֶֹל ְך‬personal name of a god, i.e.
“divine ruler”).
Knowing the pattern can tell you what kind of word you see (noun, adjective, etc.). Some
patterns are even more specific. Here are a few examples:
1.
2.
‫ – ָק ָטל‬This pattern is very common. It is a popular form for adjectives (e.g. ‫) ָח ָכם‬, but
it is also used for some nouns (e.g. ‫אָדם‬
ָ ).
‫ – ַק ָטּל‬This noun pattern is typically used for professions or occupations, as in ‫ַר ָכּב‬
“charioteer, horseman” (related to ‫“ ָר ַכב‬he rode”) or ‫שּׁת‬
ָ ‫“ ַק‬archer” (related to ‫ֶק ֶשׁת‬
“bow”). Note that the strong dagesh doubling the middle radical is part of the pattern.
3.
‫ – ִמ ְק ָטל‬This is a very common pattern for nouns (the ‫ מ‬prefix usually indicates a noun
pattern.) The ‫טל‬
ָ ‫ ִמ ְק‬pattern is often used as the place where the root action happens or
as the focus/result of the root action. For example, ‫“ ִמ ְשׁ ָכּן‬dwelling-place” comes from
the root ‫“ שׁכן‬to dwell” and is often used for the tabernacle, i.e. the place where God
dwells among the people of Israel. The word ‫“ ִמ ְס ָפּר‬number” comes from the root ‫ספר‬
“to count” and is the focus of the action of counting. (Keep in mind that this is only a
general description of this noun pattern and might not be so easily seen in other words!)
4.
5.
‫ – ַתּ ְקטוּל‬Though this pattern is not nearly as common as ‫ ִמ ְק ָטל‬, it is one example of a
pattern that uses the common prefix letter ‫ת‬, which typically indicates a noun pattern.
‫ – ַק ִטּיל‬This is a common pattern for adjectives, seen in words like ‫“ ַצ ִדּיק‬righteous”
(Genesis 6:9), ‫אַבּיר‬
ִ “strong,” ‫“ ַע ִתּיק‬ancient,” and ‫אַדּיר‬
ִ “majestic.”
Most importantly, recognizing which elements are part of the pattern will enable you to
determine which letters are part of the root. Many good Biblical Hebrew lexicons organize
words by their roots. In order to find the definition of a word, you may need to be able to
identify what its root letters are.
Unit 8
127
Homework
1. Using the Unit 8 vocabulary list, fill in the crossword puzzle below with the
correct Hebrew words. (Each square will hold one letter or one vowel.)
1.
Across:
2.
2. end
4. female
3.
‫ה‬
ָ
‫ב‬
ֵ
‫ק‬
6. he commanded
ְ
7. he came
4.
‫נ‬
Down:
1. these
3. two
5.
5. violence
6.
7.
Unit 8
128
2. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English.
‫ָע ָשׂה ִמ ְשׁ ָפּט‬
he did justice
‫יוֹ ָנה טוֹ ָבה‬
‫ִמ ְשׁ ָכּן ָקדוֹשׁ‬
‫ַזיִ ת ָקטֹן ְמאֹד‬
‫( ָז ָכר אוֹ נְ ֵק ָבה‬Deut. 4:16)
‫( דּוֹר ַצ ִדּיק‬Psalm 14:5)
‫( ָדּג ָגּדוֹל‬Jonah 2:1)
3. Match the Hebrew words on the left with their patterns on the right.
‫ָח ָדשׁ‬
‫ִמ ְב ָצר‬
‫ִאַ ִדּיר‬
‫ַגּנָּב‬
‫פּוּכה‬
ָ ‫ַתּ ְה‬
‫עֹ ֶמק‬
‫ִמ ְל ָח ָמה‬
‫ַתּ ְכ ִריך‬
mi__ā_āh
_ā_ā_
_a__ā_
mi__ā_
_a__î_
ta__û_āh
ta__î_
_ō_e_
4. Write the three root letters of each of the following words.
‫ַתּ ְר ֵדּ ָמה‬
‫ד מ‬
‫ר‬
‫חוֹ ָתם‬
__ __ __
‫ִמ ְכ ָתּב‬
__ __ __
‫ַתּ ְחבּוּ ָלה‬
__ __ __
‫__ __ __ ְגּבוּ ָלה‬
‫__ __ __ ַתּ ְל ִמיד‬
‫אכה‬
ָ ‫__ __ __ ְמ ָל‬
‫__ __ __ ַע ִתּיק‬
Unit 8
129
Recommended Bibliography
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§84a-b, §85 = pp. 227-38)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996.
(§88 = pp. 239-65)
* Joüon-Muraoka has the better discussion on this topic.
Unit 8
130
Unit 9
A Few More Vowels
Unit Description:
In this unit we will complete the phonological part by learning a few more vowels: the short
vowel [o] (qamatz-qatan) and the reduced vowels. We will learn how to recognize them while
discussing the story of Jacob’s dream (Genesis 28).
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
135
Unit 9
131
Vocabulary
Category
Nouns
Proper Nouns
Independent
Pronouns
Hebrew
Transliteration
Pronunciation
English
‫ֲא ָד ָמה‬
’ădāmāh
’adama
‫ֶרע‬
ַ‫ז‬
zéra‘
zéra
‫ָצ ָבא‬
sābā’
tsava
‫ַשׁ ַער‬
‫אַב ָר ָהם‬
ְ
šá‘ar
shá’ar
gate (m.s.)
’abrāhām
’avraham
Abraham
‫ֲאדֹנָי‬
’ădōnāy
’adonay
‫ֱאל ִֹהים‬
’ĕlōhîm
’elohim
‫ַי ֲעקֹב‬
‫יִ ְצ ָחק‬
/ ‫ֲאנִ י‬
‫אָנ ִֹכי‬
‫אַתּה‬
ָ
ya‘ăqōb
ya’akov
Jacob
yishāq
yitshak
Isaac
’ănî / ’ānōkî
’ani / ’anokhi
I
’attāh
’ata
you (m.s.)
this (m.)
ground,
land (f.s.)
seed, offspring
(m.s.)
army, warfare
(m.s.)
Lord
(divine title)
God (m.s.);
gods (m.p.)
Demonstrative
Pronoun
‫זֶה‬
zeh
ze
Relative
Particle
‫ֲא ֶשׁר‬
’ăšer
’asher
yāsā’
yatsa
he went out
Verbs
‫ָצא‬
ָ‫י‬
‫ָשׁ ַכב‬
šākab
shakhav
he lay down
m. = masculine
f. = feminine
s. = singular
Unit 9
132
p. = plural
that, which,
who
Slides from the Unit
Unit 9
133
Unit 9
134
Unit 9
135
Unit 9
136
Unit 9
137
Unit 9
138
Unit 9
139
Unit 9
140
Unit 9
141
Grammatical Remarks
In this unit, we meet the four remaining Hebrew vowels we have not studied before now. (In the
vowel chart below, vowel names are written as they are pronounced, not as they are
transliterated.)
Hebrew
Transliteration
Name
Reduced Vowel: A
ă
hatáf patáh
Reduced Vowel: E
ĕ
hatáf segól
Reduced Vowel: O
ŏ
hatáf qamáts
Short Vowel: O
o
qamáts-qatán
The Short [o] Vowel
Hebrew has a short [o] vowel, the qamats-qatan (“small qamats”), which looks identical to the
long [ā] vowel qamats. The qamats-qatan is pronounced [o] as in “open.” The qamats-qatan
only appears in closed, unaccented syllables. In every other case, the [ ָ ] vowel is the long
qamats [ā]. For example, in the word ‫אָכ ָלה‬
ְ [’ok-lāh], the first vowel is [o] because it stands in
a closed, unaccented syllable; but the last vowel is [ā] because it is accented.
Reduced Vowels
The guttural letters ‫ אהחע‬behave differently from the other consonants because they are
pronounced in the throat. One way in which these letters behave differently is that they don’t
usually take a regular shewa. Instead, they use “reduced vowels,” which add a very short vowel
sound to the letter, making it easier to pronounce. Each of the three reduced vowels is formed by
combining the shewa sign with the corresponding short vowel. Likewise, the pronunciation is
identical to the short vowel. A reduced vowel always opens a syllable like a moving shewa does.
A reduced vowel is likely to appear under a guttural in the same place where a shewa would
appear under a regular letter. The change from shewa to reduced vowel does not change the
basic pattern (e.g. ‫אַה ָבה‬
ֲ is the same pattern as ‫ ַק ְד ָמה‬, even though it has a hatáf patáh instead
of a shewa).
Unit 9
142
Homework
1. Read aloud the following words from the vocabulary list, and write the
appropriate word under each picture below.
‫ָצא‬
ָ‫י‬
a)
‫ָשׁ ַכב‬
‫ָצא‬
ָ‫י‬
‫ֶרע‬
ַ‫ז‬
‫ֲא ָד ָמה‬
‫ָצ ָבא‬
c)
b)
e)
d)
f)
‫ַי ֲעקֹב‬
g)
h)
Unit 9
143
‫אַב ָר ָהם‬
ְ
‫ַשׁ ַער‬
2. Using the Unit 9 vocabulary list, fill in the crossword puzzle below with the
correct Hebrew words. (Each square will hold one letter or one vowel.)
1.
2.
‫ם‬
‫י‬
ִ
‫ה‬
ֹ
‫ל‬
ֱ
3.
‫א‬
4.
5.
6.
Across:
Down:
2. which
1. Lord
3. God
3. you (m. s.)
5. Isaac
4. I
6. this (m.)
Unit 9
144
3. Read the following Hebrew words aloud and transliterate them into Latin script.
‫ָע ְר ָלה‬
‘orlāh
“’orla”
‫ֱא ֵלי‬
‫ֲה ַדד‬
‫ֳח ִלי‬
‫ֲלה‬
ָ ‫ַמע‬
‫אָרכּוֹ‬
ְ
‫ֱאמ ִֹרי‬
‫ֳפ ִרים‬
ָ‫ע‬
4. Match each Hebrew word on the left with the word on the right that shares the
same pattern.
‫ֲדה‬
ָ ‫ֵאר‬
‫ֲאגַף‬
‫ֲרב‬
ָ ‫ַמע‬
‫ֳאנִ י‬
‫ֲחמוֹר‬
‫ַתּעֲנִ ית‬
‫ֲרה‬
ָ ‫ַנע‬
‫ֲחר ֶֹשׁת‬
‫ַמ ְשׁאָב‬
‫ְבּ ִכי‬
‫ַתּ ְכ ִלית‬
‫ֵא ְל ָכה‬
‫ַל ָדּה‬
ְ‫י‬
‫ְדּ ַבשׁ‬
‫ְכּת ֶֹבת‬
‫ְבּרוֹשׁ‬
Unit 9
145
Recommended Bibliography
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§9u, §10f-h = pp. 45-46, 54-56)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996.
(§6 l-n, §9 = pp. 50-54)
3. Lambdin, T.O., Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Norwich, 1976.
(§6, §10 = pp. XX-XXI, XXV-XXVII)
Unit 9
146
Unit 10
The Definite Article
Unit Description:
How does Hebrew mark the difference between "a boy" and "the boy"? This is the question that
will we try to answer in unit 10. We will return to reading and discussing verses from the story
of the creation (Genesis 1) and the Tower of Babel (Genesis 11).
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
150
Unit 10
147
Vocabulary
Category
Hebrew
Transliteration
Pronunciation
English
‫ָח ְכ ָמה‬
‫כּוֹכב‬
ָ
hokmāh
hokhma
wisdom (f.s.)
kôkāb
kokhav
star (m.s.)
‫ ֵל ָבב‬/ ‫ֵלב‬
lēb / lēbāb
lev / levav
‫ֶפשׁ‬
ֶ‫נ‬
népeš
néfesh
‫ע ָֹלה‬
‘ōlāh
’ola
‫ֶפּה‬
peh
pe
‫יהוה‬
yhwh
’adonay*
‫ְשׁלֹמֹה‬
‫אַחר‬
ֵ
‫ָטהוֹר‬
‫ָט ֵמא‬
‫ָפה‬
ֶ‫י‬
‫ָשׁר‬
ָ‫י‬
‫ָרד‬
ַ‫י‬
‫ָע ָלה‬
šəlōmōh
shəlomo
Solomon
’ahēr
’aher
another
tāhôr
tahor
clean, pure
tāmē’
tame
unclean
yāpeh
yafe
fair, beautiful
yāšār
yashar
straight, right
yārad
yarad
he came down
‘ālāh
’ala
he went up
Nouns
Proper
Nouns
Adjectives
Verbs
m. = masculine
f. = feminine
heart (mind, will,
emotions) (m.s.)
soul, person,
living being (f.s.)
whole burnt
offering (f.s.)
mouth (m.s.)
LORD* (name of
Israel’s God)
s. = singular
* This name is usually written ‫ יְ הוָה‬and read as ‫אדֹנָי‬
ֲ “LORD.” But in some cases,
particularly when this name appears next to the name ‫אדֹנָי‬
ֲ , it is written ‫יְ הוִ ה‬
ֱ “GOD.”
and read as ‫אל ִֹהים‬
Unit 10
148
Slides from the Unit
Unit 10
149
Unit 10
150
Unit 10
151
Unit 10
152
Unit 10
153
Unit 10
154
Unit 10
155
Grammatical Remarks
The Indefinite Article
Hebrew has no indefinite article (“a”). A Hebrew word that does not have the definite article can
be translated with or without “a,” depending on the context. For example, ‫“ = סוּס‬horse” or “a
horse.”
The Definite Article
Meaning: The definite article (“the”) is used in Hebrew in generally the same way as it is in
English. The definite article marks something or somebody specific.
Regular Form: The definite article in Hebrew is not a separate word as it is in English. Instead,
the Hebrew definite article attaches to the beginning of the word it marks. The regular definite
article is composed of three elements: 1. The letter ‫ה‬, 2. The short [a] vowel patah, 3. A strong
dagesh doubling the first consonant of the word. For example, ‫“ = ַהסּוּס‬the horse.”
Exception: In some words in which the first consonant is followed by a shewa, that first
consonant is not geminated (i.e. doubled by a dagesh) when the definite article is added. For
example, ‫“ = ַהיְ ָל ִדים‬the children,” even though there is no dagesh in the letter ‫י‬. (This
phenomenon only occurs in some words; in other words that begin with a shewa, the dagesh still
appears.)
Noun-Adjective Agreement
Nouns and the adjectives that describe them must agree with each other in definiteness. In other
words, if a noun has the definite article, so will the adjective that describes it. (Remember that
the adjective must also agree with the noun in number and gender.) English convention does not
require us to translate the definite article twice. For example, ‫“ = ַהסּוּס ַהטּוֹב‬the good horse.”
Unit 10
156
Notes from the Text
‫ יהוה‬is the personal name of Israel’s God, but its original vowels were not preserved, so
nobody knows exactly how it was pronounced. In Hebrew tradition, out of a desire to not
accidentally break the third commandment by misusing the divine name, this name was read
‫“ ֲאדֹנָי‬LORD.” The first and last vowels of ‫ ֲאדֹנָי‬were added to the consonants of the name –
‫( יְ הוָה‬the hataf-patah changed to a shewa under the ‫ – )י‬to remind the reader that this name was
to be pronounced [’ădōnāy]. Many English translations render this as “LORD,” with all capital
letters. Sometimes it appears as ‫( יְ הוִ ה‬with the vowels of ‫ֹהים‬
ִ ‫“ ֱאל‬God”), in which case we
pronounce [’ĕlōhîm] and translate as “GOD.” Some reading traditions choose to read ‫“ ַהשֵּׁם‬the
Name” whenever they see the letters ‫ יהוה‬with either set of vowels.
The Conjunction: The regular conjunction ְ‫“ ו‬and” appears as the long [û] vowel ‫ וּ‬when it is
attached to a word that begins with one of the following:
1. A consonant pointed with a shewa – Hebrew cannot begin a word with two shewas, so
the form of the conjunction changes, e.g. ‫וּ ְשׁלֹמֹה‬.
2. A bilabial consonant (‫פ‬/‫מ‬/‫ – )ב‬The original pronunciation of the ‫ ו‬was probably [w],
which is very close to these three bilabials (consonants that are pronounced with the lips),
so it very naturally morphed into the “bilabial”* vowel [û] before one of these
consonants, as in ‫וּ ֵבין‬.
* According to the International Phonetic Alphabet, this is a “close back rounded vowel.”
Unit 10
157
Homework
1. Match the Hebrew phrase on the left to the correct translation on the right.
‫ְשׁלֹמֹה ָע ָלה‬
‫ָשׁר‬
ָ ‫ָתּ ִמים וְ י‬
‫ָח ְכ ָמה ְגּד ָֹלה‬
‫ַה ָמּקוֹם ַה ָטּ ֵמא‬
‫וְ ע ָֹלה‬
‫ָרד‬
ַ ‫יְ הוָה י‬
‫ַה ֶפּה ַה ָקּטֹן‬
blameless and upright
the unclean place
Solomon went up
the small mouth
great wisdom
and a burnt offering
the LORD went down
2. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English.
‫( ֵלב ֶא ָחד‬Ezek. 11:19)
one heart
‫ָהב ָטהוֹר‬
ָ ‫( ז‬Exod. 25:11)
‫ָפה‬
ָ ‫( ִא ָשּׁה י‬Prov. 11:22)
‫כּוֹכ ִבים‬
ָ ‫( ַה‬Gen. 15:5)
‫אַחר‬
ֵ ‫( ִאישׁ‬1 Kings 20:37)
‫( וְ ַה ֶנּ ֶפשׁ‬Lev. 7:18)
‫( ַחיָּה ְט ֵמאָה‬Lev. 5:2)
Unit 10
158
3. Add the definite article to each of the following words.
‫ָשּׂ ֶדה‬
‫ַה ָשּׂ ֶדה‬
‫ָדּ ָבר‬
‫אָך‬
ְ ‫ַמ ְל‬
‫קוֹל‬
‫גּוֹי‬
‫ָצ ָבא‬
‫ַער‬
ַ‫נ‬
‫ֶלד‬
ֶ‫י‬
4. Circle the adjective that agrees with the preceding noun in number, gender, and
definiteness.
Unit 10
159
Recommended Bibliography
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§35 = pp. 110-12)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996.
(§35 = pp. 112-14)
3. Lambdin, T.O., Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Norwich, 1976.
(§14, §18, §21 = pp. 5, 8, 12)
Unit 10
160
Unit 11
The Definite Article, Con't &
Some Prepositions
Unit Description:
In this unit we will continue to discuss some other aspects of the definite article. We will also
learn how Hebrew combines the definite article with some prepositions, while discussing verses
from the story of the tree of knowledge (Genesis 3).
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
165
Unit 11
161
Vocabulary
Category
Nouns
Adjectives
Independent
Pronouns
Prepositions
Interrogativ
es
Hebrew
Transliteration Pronunciation
‫ָעוֹן‬
‘āwōn
’avon
sin, punishment,
guilt (m.s.)
‫ָענָן‬
‫ֶרגֶל‬
‫ַחי‬
‘ānān
’anan
cloud(s) (m.s.)
régel
régel
foot (f.s.)
hay
hay
alive, living
‫ִראשׁוֹן‬
ri’šôn
rishon
former, first,
chief
‫ַרב‬
rab
rav
much, many,
great
‫הוּא‬
‫ ִהוא‬/ ‫ִהיא‬
hû’
hu
he, it, that (m.)
hî’
hi
she, it, that (f.)
-‫ְבּ‬
bə-
bə-
in, with*, at,
by, among
-‫ְכּ‬
kə-
kə-
like, as,
according to
-‫ְל‬
lə-
lə-
to, for,
belonging to
‫ ֶמה‬/ ‫ָמה‬
māh / meh
ma / me
what? how?
‫ָל ָמּה‬
lā́mmāh
láma
why?
(lit. “for
what?”)
‫ָשׁ ַכן‬
šākan
shakhan
he settled down,
he dwelt
shamar
he kept,
he guarded,
he preserved
Verbs
‫ָשׁ ַמר‬
m. = masculine
English
šāmar
f. = feminine
s. = singular
* -‫ ְבּ‬is translated “with” only in the instrumental sense (i.e. “by means of”).
Unit 11
162
Slides from the Unit
Unit 11
163
Unit 11
164
Unit 11
165
Unit 11
166
Unit 11
167
Unit 11
168
Unit 11
169
Unit 11
170
Unit 11
171
Grammatical Remarks
The Definite Article with Gutturals
In this unit, we continue our discussion of the definite article (“the”) and see how it takes a
slightly different form before the guttural letters. The reason for this is that the guttural letters ‫א‬,
‫ה‬, ‫ח‬, ‫ע‬, and also ‫( ר‬which sometimes acts like a guttural, as here) cannot be doubled, i.e. they
cannot take a dagesh. Since the dagesh is part of the regular form of the definite article, the
absence of the dagesh sometimes affects the vowel of the definite article as well.
Regular Form
Before ‫א‬, ‫ע‬, ‫ר‬
Before ‫ה‬, ‫ח‬
Before ‫ה‬, ‫ח‬, ‫ ע‬pointed with
an unaccented qamats
•
ּ ‫ַה‬
‫ָה‬
‫ַה‬
‫ֶה‬
‫ ַה ֶמּ ֶל ְך‬,‫ַהסּוּס‬
‫ ָהרֹאשׁ‬,‫ ָה ַעיִ ן‬,‫ָה ֶא ֶבן‬
‫וֹמה‬
ָ ‫ ַהח‬,‫ַההוּא‬
‫ ֶה ָענָן‬,‫ ֶה ָח ָכם‬,‫ֶה ָה ִרים‬
The lengthening of the vowel of the definite article before ‫א‬, ‫ע‬, and ‫ ר‬compensates for
the inability to geminate (double) the guttural. Before a regular consonant, the form of
the definite article is ‫ ה‬+ short vowel + gemination: ‫[ ַהסּוּס‬hassus]. When no
gemination (doubling) is possible, a lengthening of the vowel compensates for the
missing consonant: ‫[ ָה ַרע‬haara‘].This process is called “compensatory lengthening,”
and it can be illustrated in the following tablet:
C V C C
C V V C
•
Before ‫ ה‬and ‫ח‬, the definite article usually remains ‫ ַה‬, though still with no following
gemination/doubling. In other words, there is no “compensatory lengthening” in these
cases.
•
Exception: Whenever a letter ‫ה‬, ‫ח‬, or ‫ ע‬is followed by an unaccented qamats (long [ā]
vowel), the vowel of the preceding definite article is the short [e] vowel seghol.
Prepositions ‫ ל‬/ ‫ כּ‬/ ‫בּ‬
Any Hebrew word that consists of only one letter is attached to the word that follows it, as we
saw with the definite article ‫ה‬. Other single-letter words include the prepositions ‫“ ב‬in, with,” ‫כ‬
“like, as,” and ‫“ ל‬to, for,” which are typically pointed with a shewa when they are prefixed to a
word without the definite article (e.g. ‫“ ְבּ ִמ ְג ָדּל‬in a tower”). When one of these prepositions
appears before the definite article, the ‫ ה‬of the definite article is omitted, but the vowel and
dagesh (if applicable) of the definite article remain. For example, ‫“ = ַבּ ִמּ ְג ָדּל‬in the tower.”
Unit 11
172
Homework
1. Match the Hebrew phrase on the left to the correct translation on the right.
‫ִכּי־ ָשׁ ַכן‬
why, LORD? (Ex. 32:11)
‫ֶרגֶל יְ ָשׁ ָרה‬
‫לֹא ָשׁ ַמר‬
‫ָל ָמה יְ הוָה‬
he did not keep (2 Kgs. 17:19)
‫אָמר‬
ַ ‫ָמה־‬
the living God (1 Sam. 17:26)
‫ֱאל ִֹהים ַחיִּ ים‬
‫ַכּ ָדּ ָבר ַהזֶּה‬
because it had settled (Ex. 40:35)
a straight foot (Eze. 1:7)
like this thing (Gen. 44:7)
what did he say? (2 Kgs. 8:14)
2. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English.
‫( ַבּ ָשּׁנָה ַה ִהיא‬Jdg. 10:8)
in that year
‫( ְלע ָֹלה‬Gen. 22:7)
‫( ֶה ָענָן וְ ַהח ֶֹשׁ ְך‬Ex. 14:20)
‫ֶרע ַרב‬
ַ ‫( ז‬Dt. 28:38)
‫( ַבּיּוֹם ָה ִראשׁוֹן‬Ex. 12:15)
‫( ֶה ָעוֹן ַהזֶּה‬Is. 22:14)
‫( הוּא ָהיָה‬Gen. 4:20)
Unit 11
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3. Add the definite article to each of the following words.
‫ֵאשׁ‬
‫ַחיִ ל‬
‫ֶע ֶבד‬
‫ֶר ֶכב‬
‫ָח ֵצר‬
‫ֲה ֵרגָה‬
‫אָדוֹן‬
‫ָה ֵאשׁ‬
‫ָע ֶלה‬
4. Write each of the following words without the definite article and/or the
preposition.
‫ֶל ָה ִרים‬
‫ָבּ ְרחוֹב‬
‫ַה ֵשּׁם‬
‫ָה ִרים‬
‫ָהאֹ ֶר ְך‬
‫ְל ָה ָמן‬
‫ָחשׁ‬
ָ ‫ַכּנּ‬
‫ַה ֵח ֶלב‬
‫ַבּ ֶדּ ֶר ְך‬
Unit 11
174
Recommended Bibliography
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§35, §102c-d = pp. 110-12, 298-99)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996.
(§35, §103a-b = pp. 112-14, 336)
3. Lambdin, T.O., Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Norwich, 1976.
(§14-15, §18, §21 = pp. 5, 8, 12)
Unit 11
175
Unit 12
Construct Chains
Unit Description:
What is the difference between "a wood chest" and "a chest of wood"? In this unit we learn how
Hebrew marks the "of" relationship. We will illustrate this relationship discussing some verses
from Genesis.
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
180
Unit 12
177
Vocabulary
Category
Hebrew
Transliteration
Pronunciation
English
‫א ֶֹהל‬
‫ֲארוֹן‬
’ṓhel
’óhel
tent (m.s.)
’ărôn
’aron
chest, ark (m.s.)
‫יכל‬
ָ ‫ֵה‬
hêkāl
hekhal
‫ָח ֵצר‬
hāsēr
hatser
enclosure,
courtyard (b.s.)
‫כֹּל‬
kōl
kol
all, each, every,
the whole (m.s.)
‫ְכּ ִלי‬
kəlî
kəli
utensil, article,
vessel (m.s.)
‫ָביא‬
ִ‫נ‬
nābî’
navi
prophet,
spokesman (m.s.)
‫נְ ח ֶֹשׁת‬
nəhṓšet
nəhóshet
‫ְתּ ִפ ָלּה‬
‫ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם‬
‫מֹ ֶשׁה‬
‫ִסינַי‬
‫ֵע ָשׂו‬
‫ִה ִבּיט‬
‫ָשׁ ַלח‬
təpillāh
təfila
prayer (f.s.)
misráyim
mitsráyim
Egypt
mōšeh
moshe
Moses
sînay
sinay
Sinai
‘ēśāw
’esav
Esau
hibbît
hibit
he looked
šālah
shalah
he sent
Nouns
Proper
Nouns
Verbs
m. = masculine
f. = feminine
b. = both m. and f.
Unit 12
178
palace,
temple (m.s.)
copper,
bronze (m.s.)
s. = singular
Slides from the Unit
Unit 12
179
Unit 12
180
Unit 12
181
Unit 12
182
Unit 12
183
Unit 12
184
Unit 12
185
Unit 12
186
Grammatical Remarks
In these units we meet the “construct chain,” which is the Hebrew method of combining two (or
more) nouns so that one noun describes the other noun in some way.
Construct Chains
Most languages have some method of combining two nouns so that one of the nouns describes
the other. With English compound nouns, the compound noun construction “X Y” can usually be
expanded into “Y of X.” For example, “a straw hut” could also be called “a hut of straw.” The
“of” between two nouns (whether written or implicit in a compound) can express a number of
different relationships between those nouns, depending on the nouns and their context. Some
examples:
“Tree house” - Place: the house is built in the tree
“Straw hut” - Material: the hut is made from straw
“Summer home” - Time: the home is visited in the summer
“Lighthouse” - Purpose: the house sends out light
“Police car” – Possession: the car belongs to the police
In a compound construction, there is always one noun that expresses the central idea,
accompanied by a second noun that describes the central one. In the English “X Y” or “Y of X”
construction, Y is central and X is used as a modifier. For example, in “tree house,” “house” is
the main idea, and “tree” tells us something about the house.
The Hebrew method for combining two nouns in an adjectival relationship may be compared to
the English construction “XY” (e.g. “wood chest”), in which the words are placed directly next
to each other. The Hebrew construction, however, follows the order of the English construction
“Y of X” (e.g. “chest of wood”) by putting the central noun before the describing noun. For
example, “a chest of wood” appears in Hebrew as ‫ארוֹן ֵעץ‬
ֲ . This Hebrew method of
compounding two nouns is described as a “construct chain.” Like in English, the “of”
relationship expressed by this combination of two (or more) nouns may express many different
semantic relationships (place, possession, material, etc.); but the grammatical construction is
always the same.
Unit 12
187
Signs of a Construct Chain: 1. Maqaf 2. Construct Form
There are two possible indicators that two (or more) words are in a construct chain. One is that
there may be a maqaf, the line [ ‫ ] ־‬that connects two words so that they are pronounced together
and function like a single word. Regardless of whether or not the maqaf appears (it often does
not), the words in a construct chain are always treated like a single word. This means that
the first noun(s) in the chain loses its accent, which sometimes causes its vowels to change (the
second indicator of a construct chain). The changed form is called the “construct form” of the
noun, as opposed to the “absolute form” that the noun has when it appears by itself or as the last
word of a construct chain. For example, we can see in the construct chain ‫תוּאל‬
ֵ ‫“ ֶבּן־ ְבּ‬the son
of Bethuel” how the absolute form ‫ ֵבּן‬changes from a long [ē] to a short [e] in the construct
form ‫ ֶבּן‬when this word begins a construct chain. This change from a long vowel to a short
vowel in a construct form is very common. In class we discussed some basic rules for how the
vowels of a noun may change in a construct form. (The vowels may also change in other ways
aside from these rules – this is just a place to start.)
Basic Changes
1. A long [ā] vowel in a final closed syllable changes to a short [a] vowel (e.g. absolute ‫ָים‬
vs. construct ‫)יַם‬. Again, this happens because the construct noun is no longer considered
a word by itself. Instead, it joins the following absolute noun to become a single word
whose accent remains with the absolute noun, so the construct noun loses its stress.
2. The long vowels [ā] and [ē], when unstressed, change into a shewa [ə] (e.g. absolute
‫ָביא‬
ִ ‫ נ‬vs. construct ‫)נְ ִביא‬. When this rule applies to the long vowels [ā] and [ē] under a
guttural letter, a reduced vowel is used instead of a shewa.
3. The long vowel [ē] sometimes changes to a short [a] in a final closed syllable (e.g.
ֵ ‫ ז‬vs. construct ‫) ְז ַקן‬. In most cases, however, the long [ē] remains
absolute ‫ָקן‬
unchanged.
Feminine Singular Suffix
The basic rule of regular feminine singular nouns is that the [āh] ending changes to [at] in the
ַ vs. construct ‫) ַמ ְל ַכּת‬.
construct form (e.g. absolute ‫מ ְל ָכּה‬
Plural Suffixes
The regular masculine plural [îm] ending changes to [ê] in the construct form (e.g. absolute
‫אָכים‬
ִ ‫ ַמ ְל‬vs. construct ‫) ַמ ְל ֲא ֵכי‬. The regular feminine plural [ôt] ending remains unchanged in
the construct form (e.g. ‫ חוֹמוֹת‬is both absolute and construct). The other vowel changes
discussed above still apply to both masculine and feminine plural words.
Unit 12
188
Homework
1. Read aloud the following words from the vocabulary list and write the
appropriate word under each picture below.
‫א ֶֹהל‬
a)
‫ָביא ָח ֵצר‬
ִ‫נ‬
‫ֵע ָשׂו‬
‫ֵע ָשׂו‬
‫יכל‬
ָ ‫ֵה‬
‫ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם‬
c)
b)
d)
f)
‫מ ֶֹשׁה‬
e)
g)
h)
Unit 12
189
‫ֲארוֹן‬
2. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English.
‫ָשׁים ֲא ֶשׁר־ ָשׁ ַלח מ ֶֹשׁה‬
ִ ‫( ָה ֲאנ‬Num. 13:16)
the men whom Moses sent
‫( ְכּ ִלי ָטהוֹר‬Isa. 66:20)
‫( ֶאל־ ַה ְתּ ִפ ָלּה‬1 Kings 8:29)
‫( לֹא־ ִה ִבּיט‬Num. 23:21)
‫( ָכּל־ ִאישׁ וְ ִא ָשּׁה‬Exod. 35:29)
‫( ַעל־ ַהר ִסינַי‬Exod. 19:20)
‫( נְ ַחשׁ נְ ח ֶֹשׁת‬Num. 21:9)
3. Translate the construct chains below. Think about what kind of relationship
might be expressed in each phrase.
‫חוֹמה‬
ָ ‫ֶא ֶבן‬
a stone of a wall
(a stone that is located in a wall)
‫חוֹמת ֲא ָבנִ ים‬
ַ
‫ִעיר ָח ָמס‬
‫ֲח ַמס ִעיר‬
‫ֵעץ גַּן‬
‫גַּן ֵע ִצים‬
‫ִאישׁ ָח ְכ ָמה‬
‫ָח ְכ ַמת ִאישׁ‬
Unit 12
190
4. Read the following rules about the creation of construct forms. Then match the
absolute forms on the left to their construct forms on the right and write the
number(s) of the rule(s) that apply in each case.
ַ ] in a final closed syllable
unstressed [ ē / ֵ ] / [ ā / ָ ] → [ ə /ְ] (or a reduced vowel)
[ ē / ֵ ] → [ a / ַ ] in a final closed syllable in some words (but usually
ָ
1. [ ā / ] → [ a /
2.
3.
remains unchanged)
4. feminine singular ending [ āh /
Absolute
Construct
‫ָח ֵצר‬
‫ָמקוֹם‬
‫ָשׂ ָפה‬
‫ִמ ְשׁ ָפּט‬
‫ֵל ָבב‬
‫ָע ָפר‬
‫ְתּ ִפ ָלּה‬
‫ָקן‬
ֵ‫ז‬
‫ְמקוֹם‬
‫ְל ַבב‬
‫ֲח ַצר‬
‫ְשׂ ַפת‬
‫ִמ ְשׁ ַפּט‬
‫ְתּ ִפ ַלּת‬
‫ְז ַקן‬
‫ֲפר‬
ַ‫ע‬
‫ [ → ] ָה‬at / ‫] ַת‬
Rules Applied
2 and 3
Unit 12
191
Recommended Bibliography
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§89, §128 = pp. 247-48, 414-19)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996.
(§92, §129 = pp. 275-77, 463-73)
3. Lambdin, T.O., Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Norwich, 1976.
(§72-73, §75-76, §78-79 = pp. 67-70, 73-75, 77-79)
Unit 12
192
Unit 13
Plural Construct Chains
Unit Description:
How does Hebrew mark the “of" relationship in plural words? In this unit we will answer this
question. We will also read and discuss the story of Cain and Abel.
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
195
Unit 13
193
Vocabulary
Category
Nouns
Hebrew
Transliteration
Pronunciation
English
‫אוֹת‬
‫ְבּכוֹר‬
‫ָדּם‬
’ôt
’ot
sign (m.s.)
bəkôr
bəkhor
first-born (m.s.)
dām
dam
blood (m.s.)
‫ֶה ֶבל‬
hébel
hével
‫ִמנְ ָחה‬
minhāh
minha
‫ֶע ֶבד‬
‘ébed
’éved
‫ָפּנִ ים‬
pānîm
panim
face(s) (b.p.)
tson
(flock(s) of)
sheep
‫צֹאן‬
sō’n
vapor,
breath* (m.s.)
gift, tribute,
offering (f.s.)
servant,
slave (m.s.)
and goats (f.s.)
Proper
Nouns
‫ַחוָּה‬
‫ַקיִ ן‬
‫ִל ְפנֵי‬
hawwāh
hava
Eve
qáyin
káyin
Cain
lifne
in the presence
of;
lipnê
before
Prepositions
Adverb
Verbs
/ ‫ִמ ְפּנֵי‬
‫ִמ ִלּ ְפנֵי‬
‫ַע ָתּה‬
‫ֵה ִביא‬
mippənê /
mipəne /
from the presence
millipnê
milifne
of; from before
‘attāh
’ata
now
hēbî’
hevi
he brought in
‫ָע ַבד‬
‘ābad
’avad
m. = masculine f. = feminine b. = both m. and f. s. = singular
he worked,
he served
p. = plural
* ‫ ֶה ֶבל‬is often used figuratively for something unsubstantial and/or worthless.
Unit 13
194
Slides from the Unit
Unit 13
195
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196
Unit 13
197
Unit 13
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Unit 13
199
Unit 13
200
Homework
1. Read aloud the following words from the vocabulary list and write the
appropriate word under each picture below.
‫ַקיִ ן‬
a)
‫ַחוָּה‬
‫ֶה ֶבל‬
‫ָדּם‬
‫ִמנְ ָחה‬
‫ֶע ֶבד‬
‫ֶה ֶבל‬
c)
b)
d)
f)
‫צֹאן‬
e)
g)
h)
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201
‫ָפּנִ ים‬
2. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English.
‫( וְ ַע ָתּה יְ הוָה ֱאל ֵֹהי יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬1 Kgs. 8:25)
And now, LORD God of Israel…
‫ָצא ִמ ִלּ ְפנֵי ַה ֶמּ ֶל ְך‬
ָ ‫( י‬Est. 8:15)
‫( ָכּ ֿל־ ְבּכוֹר ְבּ ֶא ֶרץ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם‬Exo. 11:5)
‫( ֲא ֶשׁר ָע ַבד‬2 Kgs. 21:21)
‫( ִל ְפנֵי ִמ ְשׁ ַכּן יְ הוָה‬Lev. 17:4)
‫( ֵה ִביא יְ הוָה‬1 Kgs. 9:9)
‫( ְלאוֹת ִל ְבנֵי יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬Num. 17:3)
3. Match the absolute forms on the left to their construct forms on the right.
Absolute
Construct
‫יאים‬
ִ ‫נְ ִב‬
‫ִמ ְשׁ ָפּ ִטים‬
‫ֵלילוֹת‬
‫נְ ָפשׁוֹת‬
‫ֵכּ ִלים‬
‫אָבוֹת‬
‫ָמים‬
ִ‫י‬
‫ְבּ ֵהמוֹת‬
‫ֵלילוֹת‬
‫ֲאבוֹת‬
‫ְכּ ֵלי‬
‫יאי‬
ֵ ‫נְ ִב‬
‫יְ ֵמי‬
‫ִמ ְשׁ ְפּ ֵטי‬
‫ַבּ ֲהמוֹת‬
‫ַפשׁוֹת‬
ְ‫נ‬
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202
‫‪4. Translate the construct chains below.‬‬
‫‪stones of a wall‬‬
‫חוֹמה‬
‫אַבנֵי ָ‬
‫ְ‬
‫ַח ְרבוֹת ָצ ָבא‬
‫ַע ְב ֵדי ֶמ ֶל ְך‬
‫אַנְ ֵשׁי ִעיר‬
‫עֲוֹנוֹת ַעם‬
‫ֲצי גַּן‬
‫עֵ‬
‫ְשׁמוֹת גּוֹיִ ם‬
‫אָדם‬
‫דֹּרוֹת ָ‬
‫‪Unit 13‬‬
‫‪203‬‬
Recommended Bibliography
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§89, §128 = pp. 247-48, 414-19)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996.
(§92, §129 = pp. 275-77, 463-73)
3. Lambdin, T.O., Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Norwich, 1976.
(§72-73, §75-76, §78-79 = pp. 67-70, 73-75, 77-79)
Unit 13
204
Unit 14
Independent Personal Pronouns
Unit Description:
I, you, he, she… In this unit we will learn about the Hebrew independent personal pronouns. We
will illustrate these pronouns within the framework of the story of Cain and Abel.
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
210
Unit 14
205
Vocabulary
Category
Hebrew
Transliteration Pronunciation
‫כּ ֵֹהן‬
Nouns
kōhēn
‫ַשׂר‬
śar
English
kohen
priest (m.s.)
sar
chieftain,
official,
captain (m.s.)
Proper
Nouns
Independent
Pronouns
Preposition
Conjunctions
Adverb
‫הוּדה‬
ָ ְ‫י‬
/ ‫רוּשׁ ַלִם‬
ָ ְ‫י‬
‫רוּשׁ ַליִ ם‬
ָ ְ‫י‬
‫ַחנוּ‬
ְ ‫ֲאנ‬
‫אַתּ‬
ְ
‫אַתּם‬
ֶ
/ ‫אַתּן‬
ֵ
‫אַתּנָה‬
ֵ
‫ֵהנָּה‬
‫ְליַד‬
‫ִאם‬
yəhuda
Judah
yərushaláyim
Jerusalem
’ănáhnû
’anáhnu
we (c.)
’att
’at
you (f.s.)
’attem
’atem
you (m.p.)
’attēn /
’aten /
’attḗnāh
’aténa
hḗnnāh
héna
they (f.)
ləyad
ləyad
beside
’im
’im
if, whether
‫גַּם‬
gam
gam
‫פֹּה‬
pōh
po
here, hither
‫ָשׁב‬
ַ‫י‬
yāšab
yashav
he sat, he
dwelled
‫ָע ַמד‬
‘āmad
’amad
yəhûdāh
yərûšāláim /
yərûšāláyim
Verbs
m. = masculine
f. = feminine
c. = common
Unit 14
206
s. = singular
you (f.p.)
also, even,
moreover
he stood,
he stopped
p. = plural
Slides from the Unit
Unit 14
207
Unit 14
208
Unit 14
209
Unit 14
210
Unit 14
211
Unit 14
212
Unit 14
213
Unit 14
214
Unit 14
215
Unit 14
216
Grammatical Remarks
In this unit we see the forms of all the independent personal pronouns. (By “independent,” we
mean that these pronouns stand apart as individual words, usually as the subject of a sentence.)
I
‫ אָנ ִֹכי‬,‫ֲאנִ י‬
we
‫ַחנוּ‬
ְ ‫ֲאנ‬
you (m.s.)
‫אַתּה‬
ָ
you (m.p.)
‫אַתּם‬
ֶ
you (f.s.)
‫אַתּ‬
ְ
you (f.p.)
‫אַתּנָה‬
ֵ ,‫אַתּן‬
ֵ
he, it (m.)
‫הוּא‬
they (m.)
‫ ֵה ָמּה‬,‫ֵהם‬
she, it (f.)
‫ ִהוא‬,‫ִהיא‬
they (f.)
‫ֵהנָּה‬
•
The first person forms ‫ אָנ ִֹכי‬/‫אנִ י‬
ֲ and ‫ַחנוּ‬
ְ ‫ ֲאנ‬are “common,” i.e. not gender-specific.
•
The variant 1cs forms ‫אנִ י‬
ֲ and ‫ אָנ ִֹכי‬are both common in the biblical text, and there
doesn’t appear to be any semantic or pragmatic difference between them; both are the
pronoun “I.” Likewise, there seems to be no difference in use between the 2fp forms
‫אַתּנָה‬
ֵ and ‫אַתּן‬
ֵ .
•
The 2ms pronoun ‫אַתּה‬
ָ can also appear without the mater lectionis: ‫אַתּ‬
ָ .
•
The 2fs pronoun ‫אַתּ‬
ְ is one of the rare cases where a final letter takes a dagesh and a
shewa.
•
The 3fs pronoun has two variants, both of which mean the same thing and are
pronounced the same way. The form ‫ ִהיא‬appears most commonly in the Prophets and
the Writings. But the Torah/Pentateuch (Genesis-Deuteronomy) typically uses the form
‫ ִהוא‬, with the consonant of the masculine pronoun and the vowel of the feminine
pronoun.
•
The forms ‫ַחנוּ‬
ְ ‫ ֲאנ‬, ‫אַתּנָה‬
ֵ , ‫ ֵה ָמּה‬, and ‫ ֵהנָּה‬all have a penultimate (second-to-last) accent.
•
Just as in nouns and adjectives, the masculine plural form is used both for groups that are
entirely masculine and for groups that include both masculine and feminine individuals.
The feminine plural form is only used when every member of the group is feminine.
•
Both variants of the 3mp pronoun are common in the biblical text, and there doesn’t
appear to be any semantic difference between them. The form ‫ ֵהם‬is the most commonly
used form in the Torah, while ‫מּה‬
ָ ‫ ֵה‬is used more in Samuel and some of the poetic
books.
Unit 14
217
Homework
1. Write the independent personal pronouns (listed below) in the appropriate
places on the chart beneath.
‫ַחנוּ‬
ְ ‫ֲאנ‬
‫אַתּנָה‬
ֵ
‫ֲאנִ י‬
‫ִהוא‬
‫אָנ ִֹכי‬
‫הוּא‬
‫אַתּ‬
ְ
‫ִהיא‬
Singular
‫אַתּה‬
ָ
‫ֵהם‬
‫אַתּם‬
ֶ
‫ֵה ָמּה‬
‫אַתּן‬
ֵ
‫ֵהנָּה‬
Plural
‫ַחנוּ‬
ְ ‫ֲאנ‬
First Person Common
Second Person Masculine
Second Person Feminine
Third Person Masculine
Third Person Feminine
Unit 14
218
2. Write the following phrases under the picture they describe. (The numbers near
the figures in each picture indicate what person they are.)
‫אַתּה י ֵֹשׁב ַעל ַהסּוּס‬
ָ
‫תוֹך ַה ַבּיִ ת‬
ְ ‫אַתּם י ְֹשׁ ִבים ְבּ‬
ֶ
‫ֵה ָמּה י ְֹשׁ ִבים ְליַד ָה ֵעץ‬
‫אָנ ִֹכי ע ֵֹמד ְליַד ַה ֶדּ ֶר ְך‬
‫הוּא ע ֵֹמד ִל ְפנֵי ַהסּוּס‬
‫אַתּ ַבּ ַבּיִ ת‬
ְ
‫ִהיא ַעל ַה ַבּיִ ת‬
‫ַחנוּ ע ְֹמ ִדים ַבּ ֶדּ ֶר ְך‬
ְ ‫ֲאנ‬
a)
‫ִהיא ַעל ַה ַבּיִ ת‬
c)
b)
e)
d)
f)
g)
h)
Unit 14
219
3. Match the Hebrew phrases on the left to their English translations on the right.
‫( וְ גַם אַנְ ֵשׁי ַה ָמּקוֹם‬Gen. 38:22)
‫( ָע ַמד ָשׁם‬Gen. 19:27)
he stood there
‫( וְ ִאם־ ִמן־ ַהצֹּאן‬Lev. 1:10)
and moreover, the men of the place…
‫( וְ גַם־פֹּה‬Gen. 40:15)
beside the king
‫( ַשׂר־ ְצ ָבא־יְ הוָה‬Jos. 5:14)
the days that he dwelled
‫ָשׁב‬
ַ ‫ָמים ֲא ֶשׁר־י‬
ִ ‫( ַהיּ‬1 Sam. 27:7)
and even here
‫( ְליַד ַה ֶמּ ֶל ְך‬1 Chr. 18:17)
the captain of the army of the LORD
but if from the flock
4. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English.
‫אַתּם‬
ֶ ‫( ִמי‬2 Kgs. 10:13)
who are you (m.p.)?
‫אַתּ‬
ְ ְ‫( ו‬Jdg. 11:35)
‫ַחנוּ‬
ְ ‫( וְ גַם־ ֲאנ‬Gen. 44:9)
‫רוּשׁ ַל ִם‬
ָ ְ‫( ָכּל־י‬2 Kgs. 24:14)
‫אַתּנָה‬
ֵ ְ‫( ו‬Gen. 31:6)
‫הוּדה‬
ָ ְ‫( ְבּכוֹר י‬Gen. 38:7)
‫( ֶאל־ ַהכּ ֵֹהן‬Lev. 2:8)
Unit 14
220
Recommended Bibliography
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§32 = pp. 105-108)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996.
(§39 = pp. 119-123; Paradigm 1, p. 656)
3. Lambdin, T.O., Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Norwich, 1976. (§81 = pp. 82-83)
Unit 14
221
Unit 15
Pronominal Suffixes
Unit Description:
In this unit we will learn how Hebrew marks the differences between: "my horse", "your horse"
and "his horse".
We will also discuss how the biblical Hebrew symbolized the connection between the dove and
Noah (Genesis 8).
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
225
Unit 15
223
Vocabulary
Category
Nouns
Numbers
Prepositions
Hebrew
Transliteration Pronunciation
English
‫אָדוֹן‬
‫ְבּ ִרית‬
’ādôn
’adon
lord, master (m.s.)
bərît
bərit
covenant (f.s.)
‫ֶח ֶסד‬
hésed
hésed
goodness,
kindness (m.s.)
‫ַכּף‬
kap
kaf
palm (of hand), sole
(of foot), pan (f.s.)
‫ק ֶֹדשׁ‬
qṓdeš
kódesh
apartness, holiness,
sacredness (m.s.)
‫ֶק ֶשׁת‬
qéšet
késhet
bow, rainbow (f.s.)
‫ָשׁלוֹם‬
šālôm
shalom
completeness,
soundness, welfare,
peace (m.s.)
‫תּוֹרה‬
ָ
tôrāh
torah
instruction, law,
direction (f.s.)
‫ֶא ֶלף‬
‫ֵמאָה‬
/ ‫אַחר‬
ַ
‫אַח ֵרי‬
ֲ
’élep
’élef
thousand
mē’āh
me’a
hundred
’ahar / ’ahărê
’ahar / ’ahare
behind, after
* ‫ֵאת‬
’ēt
’et
with (denotes
proximity)
‫ַתּ ַחת‬
táhat
táhat
underneath, below,
instead of
‫ֵה ִקים‬
hēqîm
hekim
he raised (up),
he established
‫ָתן‬
ַ‫נ‬
nātan
natan
he gave, he put,
he set
Verbs
m. = masculine
f. = feminine
s. = singular
* Before pronominal suffixes: ‫ ִא ִתּי‬, ‫ ִא ְתּ ָך‬, ‫ ִא ָתּ ְך‬, ‫ ִאתּוֹ‬, ‫ ִא ָתּהּ‬, ‫ ִא ָתּנוּ‬, ‫ ִא ְתּ ֶכם‬, ‫ ִא ָתּם‬.
Unit 15
224
Slides from the Unit
Unit 15
225
Unit 15
226
Unit 15
227
Unit 15
228
Unit 15
229
Unit 15
230
Unit 15
231
Unit 15
232
Grammatical Remarks
In this unit we continue our discussion of the pronouns and see what they look like when they
are attached to the end of a noun or preposition as a “pronominal suffix”:
my horse
( ‫סוּסי ) ִי‬
ִ
our horse
( ‫סוּסנוּ ) ֵנוּ‬
ֵ
your (m.s.) horse
( ‫סוּס ָך ) ָך‬
ְ
your (m.p.) horse
( ‫סוּס ֶכם ) ֶכם‬
ְ
your (f.s.) horse
( ‫סוּס ְך ) ְֵך‬
ֵ
your (f.p.) horse
( ‫סוּס ֶכן ) ֶכן‬
ְ
their (m.) horse
( ‫סוּסם ) ָם‬
ָ
their (f.) horse
( ‫סוּסן ) ָן‬
ָ
his horse
her horse
/ ( ‫סוּסוֹ ) וֹ‬
( ‫סוּסֹה ) ֹה‬
( ‫סוּסהּ ) ָהּ‬
ָ
•
The 1cp form ‫ֵנוּ‬- has a penultimate (second-to-last) accent: [-ḗnû]. The first person
forms ‫ִי‬- “me” and ‫ֵנוּ‬- “us” are “common,” i.e. not gender-specific.
•
When a suffix beginning with a consonant (‫ ָך‬-, ‫ ֶכם‬, ‫ ) ֶכן‬is added, a shewa appears under
the final letter of the noun in construct form, e.g. ‫סוּס ָך‬
ְ [sûs-kā].
•
Since both ‫ ו‬and ‫ ה‬can be used as a mater lectionis for the [o] vowel, there are two
variants of the 3ms suffix. The ‫וֹ‬- suffix is much more common (‫ֹה‬- is probably more
archaic).
•
The diacritic point in the 3fs suffix ‫ָהּ‬- is called a mappiq, and it appears in the ‫ ה‬at the
end of a word when the ‫ ה‬is actually a consonant and not just a mater lectionis. We
pronounce the ‫ הּ‬as an aspirated [h], like the breathy sound at the beginning of “horse.”
(Though the mappiq looks like a dagesh, it is not – remember that guttural letters cannot
take the dagesh.)
•
These are the suffixes that attach to singular nouns. The pronominal suffix forms that
attach to plural nouns are similar, but slightly different, and we’ll learn them at a later
point.
•
A ‫ מ‬is used for second/third masculine plural forms, and a ‫ נ‬is used for the feminine
plural.
•
Though the second person pronominal suffixes have the same final vowel pattern as the
independent pronouns, they use the letter ‫ך‬/‫ כ‬instead of ‫( ת‬compare 2mp ‫ ֶכם‬- and
‫אַתּם‬
ֶ ).
Unit 15
233
Since the pronominal suffixes were originally independent personal pronouns that became
attached to the noun or preposition they followed, they have the same characteristics and often a
similar form:
We used ‫ סוּס‬as an example in this unit because the form of this word remains unchanged when
a suffix is added. But whenever the construct form of a noun is different from its absolute form,
the pronominal suffixes attach to the construct form.
The pronominal suffixes are also used when a pronoun appears after a preposition, e.g. ‫ִלי‬
“to me.”
Unit 15
234
Homework
1. Write the pronominal suffixes (listed below) in the appropriate places on the
chart beneath.
‫ֵנוּ‬-
‫ֹה‬-
‫ָם‬-
‫ ָך‬-
‫ ֶכם‬-
‫ ֶכן‬-
‫ָן‬-
‫ִי‬-
‫ָהּ‬-
‫וֹ‬-
Singular
First Person Common
Second Person Masculine
Second Person Feminine
Third Person Masculine
‫ֹה‬- / ‫וֹ‬-
Third Person Feminine
Unit 15
235
‫ ְֵך‬-
Plural
2. Read aloud the following words from the vocabulary list and write the
appropriate word under each picture below.
‫ַתּ ַחת‬
‫ָתן‬
ַ‫נ‬
‫תּוֹרה‬
ָ
a)
c)
‫ֵמאָה‬
‫ַכּף‬
‫ַתּ ַחת‬
‫ֶק ֶשׁת‬
b)
d)
e)
f)
g)
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236
‫ֶא ֶלף‬
3. Match the nouns on the left to the pronouns on the right that indicate the person
to which each noun belongs.
‫ַח ְס ִדּי‬
‫ית ָך‬
ְ ‫ֵבּ‬
‫ְדּ ָב ֵר ְך‬
‫ְשׂ ָפ ָתם‬
‫ִא ְשׁתּוֹ‬
‫ְבּנָהּ‬
‫אַתּ‬
ְ
‫אָנ ִֹכי‬
‫אַתּם‬
ֶ
‫אַתּה‬
ָ
‫ֵהם‬
‫הוּא‬
‫אַר ְצ ֶכם‬
ְ
‫ַכּ ְס ֵפּנוּ‬
‫ַחנוּ‬
ְ ‫ֲאנ‬
‫ִהיא‬
4. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English.
‫אַד ַמת־ק ֶֹדשׁ‬
ְ (Exo. 3:5)
holy ground (lit. “ground of holiness”)
‫( ַה ֶח ֶסד ַהזֶּה‬2 Sam. 2:5)
‫אַב ָר ָהם‬
ְ ‫( ְבּ ִריתוֹ ֶאת־‬Exo. 2:24)
‫( ִמי ֵה ִקים‬Prov. 30:4)
‫אַח ֵרי ַה ְדּ ָב ִרים ָה ֵא ֶלּה‬
ֲ (Gen. 22:20)
‫( ֶאל־ ֲאדֹנִ י‬Gen. 44:20)
‫אָרץ‬
ֶ ‫( ָשׁלוֹם ָבּ‬Lev. 26:6)
Unit 15
237
Recommended Bibliography
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§33 = pp. 108- 109; §135m-r = pp. 439-441; Paradigm A, p. 509)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996.
(§94 = pp. 285- 291; Paradigm 20, pp. 686-687)
Unit 15
238
Unit 16
The Definite Construct
Unit Description:
The question that we will answer in this unit is how Hebrew marks the difference between “THE
son of Jesse” and “A son of Jesse.” We will illustrate these constructions within the framework
of the story of Hagar (Genesis 21).
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
240
Unit 16
239
Vocabulary
Category
Hebrew
Transliteration Pronunciation
English
‫אָמה‬
ָ
’āmāh
’ama
maid, handmaid
(f.s.)
‫ְבּ ֵאר‬
bə’ēr
bə’er
well, pit (f.s.)
mo’ed
appointed time,
place,
‫מוֹעד‬
ֵ
mô‘ēd
meeting (m.s.)
Nouns
melody (technical
‫ִמ ְזמוֹר‬
mizmôr
mizmor
designation of
psalms) (m.s.)
‫ִמ ְל ָח ָמה‬
‫ְשׁ ֶכם‬
‫ָתן‬
ָ ‫יְ הוֹנ‬
milhāmāh
milhama
battle, war (f.s.)
šəkem
shəkhem
shoulder (m.s.)
yəhônātān
yəhonatan
Jonathan
‫ַפּ ְרעֹה‬
par‘ōh
par’o
‫ָשׂ ָרה‬
‫ָשׁאוּל‬
śārāh
sara
Sarah
šā’ûl
sha’ul
Saul
Demonstrative
Pronoun
‫זֹאת‬
zō’t
zot
this (f.)
Preposition
‫ִעם‬
‘im
’im
with
Adverb
‫עוֹד‬
‘ôd
’od
Verbs
‫ִדּ ֶבּר‬
‫ָלד‬
ַ‫י‬
dibber
diber
he spoke
yālad
yalad
he bore, he begot
Proper Nouns
m. = masculine
f. = feminine
s. = singular
Unit 16
240
Pharaoh (title of
Egyptian kings)
still, yet,
again, besides
Slides from the Unit
Unit 16
241
Unit 16
242
Unit 16
243
Unit 16
244
Unit 16
245
Unit 16
246
Unit 16
247
Unit 16
248
Grammatical Remarks
In this unit we discuss the implications of the basic rule for definiteness in construct chains:
*A noun in construct form cannot take the definite article.*
Definite Construct Chains
When Hebrew wants to make a construct chain definite, the definite article is added to the
word in the absolute form, as in ‫מּ ֶל ְך‬
ֶ ‫“ ֵבּית־ ַה‬the house of the king.” Because the construct
chain is considered to be a single unit in Hebrew, making the absolute form definite makes the
entire construct chain definite by extension. This is true even for construct chains composed of
more than two nouns, e.g. ‫ה ָצּ ָבא‬
ַ ‫“ = ֶח ֶרב ַשׂר‬the sword of the captain of the army.” Since a
noun in construct cannot take the definite article, the definite article can only appear on the final
noun of a construct chain (which is the only noun that is in the absolute form), no matter how
long the construct chain is.
Construct Chains with Proper Nouns
Proper nouns are automatically definite because they indicate a specific person (or place), so they
do not take the definite article. (The same is true for nouns with a pronominal suffix, e.g. ‫מ ְל ִכּי‬
ַ
“my king.”) This creates some ambiguity in construct chains in which the word in absolute form is
a proper noun. Typically we understand such a construct chain to be definite, e.g. ‫“ ֵבּית־ ָדּוִ ד‬the
house of David”; but since there is no way to make the proper noun indefinite, the word in
construct might also be understood to be indefinite, depending on the context.
For example, in Genesis 22:11 (the story of Abraham’s sacrifice of Isaac), '‫אַך ה‬
ְ ‫ ַמ ְל‬is often
translated “the angel of the LORD” because “LORD” is a proper noun and therefore is automatically
definite. In this context, however, '‫אַך ה‬
ְ ‫ ַמ ְל‬might be better translated, “an angel of the LORD,”
since this angel appears suddenly in the story and doesn’t seem to be any specific angel.
ַ ִ‫ ֶבּן־י‬clearly refers to a specific son
But in the context of 1 Samuel 20:27, the construct chain ‫שׁי‬
(i.e. David, who is mentioned earlier in the verse); so ‫שׁי‬
ַ ִ‫ ֶבּן־י‬is translated, “the son of Jesse.”
“A [noun] of [proper noun]”
Other than the context, Hebrew has no way to specifically mark that the first part of a construct
chain that ends in a proper noun is indefinite. In order to do this, Hebrew must use a completely
different construction: ___‫“ ___ ְל‬a [noun] of / belonging to [proper noun].” For example, ‫ֵבּן‬
‫“ = ְליִ ַשׁי‬a son of Jesse.” This is not a construct chain – it is [absolute noun] + [preposition ‫ ] ְל‬+
[absolute noun]. We see this phrase in 1 Samuel 16:18. The speaker there doesn’t know David
specifically, and he knows Jesse has many sons, so he simply refers to David as “a son of Jesse.”
Unit 16
249
Note on the Prepositions ‫ ל‬/ ‫ כּ‬/ ‫בּ‬
As we saw in class, when the preposition ‫ ְל‬is prefixed to a word that begins with a shewa, the shewa
under the ‫ ל‬changes to a hireq (short [i] vowel), as in ‫ ִל ְשׁלֹמֹה‬. This is because Hebrew cannot
begin a word with two consecutive shewas. The same is also true for the prepositions ‫ ְבּ‬and ‫ ְכּ‬.
Unit 16
250
Homework
1. Match each Hebrew phrase with its corresponding English translation.
‫( ְבּמוֹעֲדוֹ‬Num. 9:2)
upon her shoulder
‫( ַעל־ ִשׁ ְכ ָמהּ‬Gen. 24:15)
from this land
‫( עוֹד ֶאל־ ַה ְבּ ֵאר‬Gen. 24:20)
at its appointed time
‫אָרץ ַהזֹּאת‬
ֶ ‫( ִמן־ ָה‬Gen. 50:24)
who bore?
‫( ַצ ִדּיק ִעם־ ָר ָשׁע‬Gen. 18:23)
again to the well
‫( ָכּל־ ַה ְדּ ָב ִרים ֲא ֶשׁר־ ִדּ ֶבּר‬Exo. 4:30)
with this man
‫( ִמי ָי ַלד‬Isa. 49:21)
all the words that he spoke
‫( ִעם־ ָה ִאישׁ ַהזֶּה‬Gen. 24:58)
righteous with wicked
2. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English.
‫( ִמ ְזמוֹר ְל ָדוִ ד‬Psa. 3:1)
a melody/psalm of David
‫( ְבּ ֵאר ַמיִ ם‬Gen. 26:19)
‫( ַחיֵּי ָשׂ ָרה‬Gen. 23:1)
‫אָמה‬
ָ ‫( ֶבּן־ ָה‬Gen. 21:13)
‫ָתן‬
ָ ‫( ֵבּן ִליהוֹנ‬2 Sam. 9:3)
‫( ַע ְב ֵדי ָשׁאוּל‬1 Sam. 18:23)
‫ֲב ִדים ְל ַפ ְרעֹה‬
ָ ‫( ע‬Gen. 47:19)
‫( ָכּל־אַנְ ֵשׁי ַה ִמּ ְל ָח ָמה‬Deut. 2:16)
Unit 16
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3. Make each of the following phrases definite, then translate.
‫קוֹל ִא ָשּׁה‬
‫קוֹל ָה ִא ָשּׁה‬
the voice of the woman
‫כּוֹכ ֵבי ָשׁ ַמיִ ם‬
ְ
‫יכל‬
ָ ‫ֲח ַצר ֵה‬
‫ח ֶֹשׁ ְך ַליְ ָלה‬
‫ֹהנֵי ִמ ְשׁ ָכּן‬
ֲ‫כּ‬
‫ֶלד‬
ֶ ‫ְפּנֵי י‬
‫ַשׁ ַער ִעיר‬
4. Write the following phrases in Hebrew, using the words in the chart below.
Names
Absolute Form
Construct Form
‫אַב ָר ָהם‬
ְ
‫ֵבּן‬
‫ֶבּן־‬
‫ָדּוִ ד‬
‫ַבּיִ ת‬
‫ֵבּית־‬
‫מ ֶֹשׁה‬
‫ָדּ ָבר‬
‫ְדּ ַבר־‬
‫ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם‬
‫ֶמ ֶל ְך‬
‫ֶמ ֶל ְך־‬
a son of Abraham
‫אַב ָר ָהם‬
ְ ‫ֵבּן ְל‬
the word of Moses
the king of Egypt
a house of David
a word of Moses
the son of Abraham
a king of Egypt
the house of David
Unit 16
252
Recommended Bibliography
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§127 = pp. 410-413; §129c-d = pp. 419-420)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996.
(§130 = pp. 473-477; §139 = pp. 516-519)
3. Lambdin, T.O., Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Norwich, 1976. (§72 = pp. 67-70)
Unit 16
253
Unit 17
Nominal Sentences
Unit Description:
Why doesn't Hebrew need a verb in order to create a sentence? In this unit we will learn how
Hebrew creates nominal sentences. We will also discuss what happened between Jacob and
Rachel near the well (Genesis 29).
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
255
Unit 17
255
Vocabulary
Category
Nouns
Number
Proper
Nouns
Hebrew Transliteration Pronunciation
English
‫ח ֶֹדשׁ‬
hōd́ eš
hódesh
new moon,
month (m.s.)
‫ִמ ְקנֶה‬
miqneh
miqne
livestock (inc. cows,
sheep, etc.) (m.s.)
‫ַמ ְר ֶאה‬
mar’eh
mar’e
sight, appearance,
vision (m.s.)
‫ֵע ֶדר‬
‫ֵעת‬
‫ֶר ֶחם‬
‫ַר ֲח ִמים‬
‫ָשׁלֹשׁ‬
‫ֵלאָה‬
‫ָר ֵחל‬
‫ִשׁ ְמעוֹן‬
‘ḗder
’éder
flock, herd (m.s.)
‘ēt
’et
time, season (f.s.)
réhem
réhem
womb (m.s.)
rahămîm
rahamim
compassion (m.p.)
šālōš
shalosh
three (f.)
lē’āh
le’a
Leah
rāhēl
rahel
Rachel
šim‘ôn
shim’on
Simeon
Interjection
‫ֵהן‬
hēn
hen
behold!, “see (here),
…” (draws attention
to what follows)*
Adverb
‫אַך‬
ְ
’ak
’akh
surely, but (may
contrast other ideas)
Verbs
‫ִר ַחם‬
‫ָשׂנֵא‬
riham
riham
he had compassion
śānē’
sane
he hated
m. = masculine
f. = feminine
s. = singular
p. = plural
* This interjection similar to ‫ ִהנֵּה‬, but is usually used to draw attention to a fact
that underlies a proposed action or conclusion.
Unit 17
256
Slides from the Unit
Unit 17
257
Unit 17
258
Unit 17
259
Unit 17
260
Unit 17
261
Unit 17
262
Unit 17
263
Unit 17
264
Unit 17
265
Grammatical Remarks
Nominal Sentences
One of the characteristic phenomena of the Hebrew language is the common use of “nominal
sentences,” which don’t require a verb (unlike English sentences). The most basic type of
nominal sentence is created by juxtaposing two nouns or a noun and an adjective, so that
one noun is the subject of the sentence and the other is the predicate (the part of the sentence
that says something new about the subject). Not every noun-noun or noun-adjective pair creates
a sentence. For example, neither ‫“ ַבּיִ ת גָּדוֹל‬a large house” nor ‫“ ַה ַבּיִ ת ַהגָּדוֹל‬the large house”
are sentences. A construct chain also combines two nouns without creating a sentence, such as in
‫“ ֵבּית ִאישׁ‬a man’s house” or ‫“ ֵבּית ָה ִאישׁ‬the man’s house.” (Even if the context didn’t make
it clear, the construct form of ‫ ֵבּית‬tells us that we have a construct chain here and not two
independent nouns.)
The basic rule of nominal sentences is that when two absolute nouns (or a noun and an adjective)
that have the same level of definiteness are juxtaposed, they do not create a sentence; but when
they differ in their level of definiteness, a nominal sentence is created. For example, both
elements in ‫“ ַבּיִ ת גָּדוֹל‬a large house” are indefinite, and both elements in ‫“ ַה ַבּיִ ת ַהגָּדוֹל‬the
large house” are definite, so neither phrase is a sentence. But in ‫ ַה ַבּיִ ת גָּדוֹל‬or ‫גָּדוֹל ַה ַבּיִ ת‬, the
definite noun ‫ ַה ַבּיִ ת‬is more definite than the indefinite adjective ‫גָּדוֹל‬, creating a nominal
sentence: “The house is large.” Note the subject and predicate may appear in any order, so we
must understand the subject by the context (also, the subject is typically the more definite of the
pair). Most nominal sentences express a state of being, so we translate with the English verb “to
be” (the tense depends on the context).
When a noun is paired with an adjective in a nominal sentence, as in ‫מה‬
ָ ‫“ ָה ִא ָשּׁה ֲח ָכ‬the
woman is wise,” the adjective agrees with the noun in number and gender. When two nouns are
juxtaposed, as in ‫תּוֹרה נֵר‬
ָ ‫“ ַה‬the law is a lamp,” each retains its own gender and number.
A construct chain can stand as one of the elements in a nominal sentence. For example, in the
sentence, ‫“ ֵבּית ָה ִאישׁ גָּדוֹל‬the man’s house is large,” ‫“ ֵבּית ָה ִאישׁ‬the man’s house” is
considered to be a single definite unit, since a construct chain functions as a single idea in
Hebrew.
Levels of Definiteness
There are three different levels of definiteness that we see in the Hebrew language. Whenever
two elements from different levels are combined, a nominal sentence is created. Remember, the
important thing for creating a nominal sentence is to have a difference in the level of
definiteness.
1. Indefinite noun or adjective, e.g. ‫“ ַבּיִ ת‬a house” or ‫“ גָּדוֹל‬large.”
Unit 17
266
2. Definite:
a. Definite Article, e.g. ‫ה ַבּיִ ת‬
ַ “the house.”
b. Pronominal Suffix, e.g. ‫“ ֵבּיתוֹ‬his house.” A pronominal suffix makes a noun
definite by ascribing it to a specific person. Therefore, ‫“ ֵבּיתוֹ ַהגָּדוֹל‬his large
house” is a simple phrase made up of two definite nouns, whereas ‫“ ֵבּיתוֹ גָּדוֹל‬his
house is large” is a nominal sentence because ‫ ֵבּיתוֹ‬is definite and ‫ גָּדוֹל‬is not.
c. Proper Noun, e.g. ‫“ ָדּוִ ד‬David.” Any person/place name is automatically definite
because it refers to someone or something specific. Therefore, ‫מּ ֶל ְך‬
ֶ ‫“ ָדּוִ ד ַה‬King
David” is a simple phrase made up of two definite nouns, whereas ‫מ ֶל ְך‬
ֶ ‫“ ָדּוִ ד‬David
is (a) king” is a nominal sentence because ‫ ָדּוִ ד‬is definite and ‫מ ֶל ְך‬
ֶ is not.
3. Most Definite:
a. Personal Pronouns, e.g. ‫אנִ י‬
ֲ “I.” The independent personal pronouns are also
automatically definite. In fact, they are even more definite than simple definite nouns
like ‫מּ ֶל ְך‬
ֶ ‫ ַה‬because they are more specific in their designation. For example, in the
sentence ‫מּ ֶל ְך‬
ֶ ‫“ ֲאנִ י ַה‬I am the king,” many different kings may be described by “the
king,” but only one person, i.e. the speaker himself, can be described by the pronoun
“I.” Of course ‫מ ֶל ְך‬
ֶ ‫“ ֲאנִ י‬I am a king” would also be a nominal sentence.
b. Demonstrative Pronouns, e.g. ‫“ זֶה‬this.” Just like the independent personal pronouns,
the demonstrative pronouns are more definite than regular definite nouns because
they are more specific in their designation. For example, ‫מּ ֶל ְך‬
ֶ ‫“ = זֶה ַה‬This is the
king.”
Note: If it doesn’t seem to make sense that pronouns are more definite than
anything else, ignore the above explanations and just remember that a pronoun
combined with any noun or adjective will usually make a nominal sentence ☺
Unit 17
267
Homework
1. Match each Hebrew phrase with its corresponding English translation.
‫ִר ַחם יְ ה ָוה‬
(Psa. 103:13)
to Leah his mother
‫( ֶאל־ ֵלאָה ִאמּוֹ‬Gen. 30:14)
behold, I am a tree
‫( ְכּ ַמ ְר ֵאה נְ ח ֶֹשׁת‬Eze. 40:3)
‫( ֵהן ֲאנִ י ֵעץ‬Isa. 56:3)
‫אַך ִהנֵּה ִא ְשׁ ְתּ ָך ִהוא‬
ְ (Gen. 26:9)
the LORD has compassion
between the livestock of Israel
like the appearance of bronze
‫( ָכּל־ ֶר ֶחם ִבּ ְבנֵי יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬Exo. 13:2)
‫ֵבּין ִמ ְקנֵה יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬
but see, she is your wife
(Exo. 9:4)
which the LORD your God hates
‫יך‬
ָ ‫ֲא ֶשׁר ָשׂנֵא יְ הוָה ֱאל ֶֹה‬
every womb among the children
of Israel
(Deut. 16:22)
2. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English.
‫( ִהוא ֵלאָה‬Gen. 29:25)
She is Leah.
‫ֲד ִרים‬
ָ ‫( ָכל־ ָהע‬Gen. 29:3)
‫( ְבּא ֶֹהל ָר ֵחל‬Gen. 31:33)
‫( ַשׁ ַער ִשׁ ְמעוֹן‬Eze. 48:33)
‫וּב ַר ֲח ִמים‬
ְ ‫וּב ֶח ֶסד‬
ְ ‫וּב ִמ ְשׁ ָפּט‬
ְ (Hos. 2:21)
‫( ַבּח ֶֹדשׁ ָה ִראשׁוֹן ַבּ ָשּׁנָה‬Exo. 40:17)
‫( ֵעת ִמ ְל ָח ָמה וְ ֵעת ָשׁלוֹם‬Ecc. 3:8)
‫( ָשׁלֹשׁ ָשׁנִ ים‬Jdg. 9:22)
Unit 17
268
3. Tell whether each phrase below is a nominal sentence or not, and translate.
‫ָקן‬
ֵ ‫ָה ִאישׁ ז‬
yes
The man is old.
‫ַחיָּה ְט ֵמאָה‬
‫ֵא ֶלּה ַה ָיּ ִמים‬
‫אַתּה ֲאדֹנִ י‬
ָ
‫ֶבּן־ ָדּוִ ד ֶה ָח ָכם‬
‫ֹהנִ ים‬
ֲ ‫ַחנוּ כּ‬
ְ ‫ֲאנ‬
‫ְבּנוֹ ַה ָקּטֹן‬
‫ֵלב־ ַה ַנּ ַער ָטהוֹר‬
Unit 17
269
4. Write the following phrases in Hebrew, using the words in the chart below.
Indefinite Form
Definite Form
‫ָשׁים‬
ִ ‫ֲאנ‬
‫ֶא ֶרץ‬
‫דוֹלה‬
ָ ‫ְגּ‬
‫ְדּ ָר ִכים‬
‫ֲח ָכ ִמים‬
‫יְ ָשׁרוֹת‬
‫ֶמ ֶל ְך‬
‫ַצ ִדּיק‬
‫ָשׁים‬
ִ ‫ָה ֲאנ‬
‫אָרץ‬
ֶ ‫ָה‬
‫דוֹלה‬
ָ ‫ַה ְגּ‬
‫ַה ְדּ ָר ִכים‬
‫ַה ֲח ָכ ִמים‬
‫ַהיְּ ָשׁרוֹת‬
‫ַה ֶמּ ֶל ְך‬
‫ַה ַצּ ִדּיק‬
The king is righteous.
‫ ַה ֶמּ ֶל ְך ַצ ִדּיק‬/ ‫ַצ ִדּיק ַה ֶמּ ֶל ְך‬
the wise men
straight paths
The land is great.
The men are wise.
the great land
The paths are straight.
a righteous king
Unit 17
270
Recommended Bibliography
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§140-141 = pp. 450-454)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996.
(§154 = pp. 564-577)
3. Lambdin, T.O., Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Norwich, 1976. (§60 = pp. 55)
*Joüon-Muraoka has the best discussion on this topic.
Unit 17
271
Unit 18
Nominal Sentences, Con't
Unit Description:
In this unit we will meet different ways to create nominal sentences in Hebrew. We will
demonstrate how the author of Proverbs 6:23 plays with nominal sentences in order to design a
challenging proverb.
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
270
Unit 18
273
Vocabulary
Category
Hebrew
Transliteration Pronunciation
‫ִמ ְצוָה‬
miswāh
mitsva
‫ֶק ֶרב‬
qéreb
kérev
inward part,
midst (m.s.)
‫ַען‬
ַ ‫ְכּנ‬
kəná‘an
kəná’an
Canaan
‫ְכּ ַנעֲנִ י‬
kəna‘ănî
kəna’ani
Canaanite
‫ָח ֵמשׁ‬
hāmēš
hamesh
five (f.)
‫ֲח ִמ ִשּׁים‬
hămiššîm
hamishim
fifty
‫ְל ַמ ַען‬
ləmá‘an
ləmá’an
for the sake of;
in order that
‫ַעד‬
‘ad
’ad
‫אַף‬
’ap
’af
‫אָז‬
’āz
’az
as far as, up to,
until
also, more than
this
at that time, then
‫ֵאין‬
’ên
’en
there is/are not
‫יֵשׁ‬
yēš
yesh
there is/are
‫ַרק‬
raq
rak
only, altogether,
surely
‫ָה ַרג‬
hārag
harag
he killed
‫ָע ַבר‬
‘ābar
’avar
he passed
over / through / by
Nouns
Proper Nouns
Numbers
Prepositions
Conjunction
Adverbs
Verbs
m. = masculine
English
commandment
f. = feminine
s. = singular
Unit 18
274
(f.s.)
Slides from the Unit
Unit 18
275
Unit 18
276
Unit 18
277
Unit 18
278
Unit 18
279
Unit 18
280
Unit 18
281
Grammatical Remarks
In this unit we continue our discussion about nominal sentences, explaining three more common
ways in which Hebrew can create a sentence without using a verb.
Adverbial Predicate Example: ‫“ = ָה ִאישׁ ַבּ ַבּיִ ת‬The man is in the house.”
A nominal sentence can be created by placing an adverb (often a preposition) at the beginning of
the predicate. Adverbs of place (as shown in the example above) are the most common, though
there are other types. These are some prepositions/adverbs in your vocabulary list that can serve
ֲ , ‫“( ֵאת‬with”), -‫ ְבּ‬, ‫ ַבּיִ ן‬, ‫תוֹך‬
ְ ‫ ְבּ‬, -‫ ְכּ‬, -‫ ְל‬, ‫ ְליַד‬, ‫ ִל ְפנֵי‬, ‫ ִמן‬, ‫ ַעל‬, ‫ ִעם‬,
as adverbial predicates: ‫אַח ֵרי‬
‫פֹּה‬, ‫ ָשׁם‬, ‫ ַתּ ַחת‬.
Existential Predicate Example: ‫“ = יֵשׁ ִאישׁ ַבּ ַבּיִ ת‬There is a man in the house.”
Another major type of nominal sentence is that which has an existential predicate. The Hebrew
word ‫“ יֵשׁ‬there is / there are” is an adverb of existence, not a verb as in English. When used in a
nominal sentence, ‫ יֵשׁ‬serves as the predicate. Unlike the English phrases “there is / there are,”
the single Hebrew word ‫ יֵשׁ‬is used with both singular and plural subjects.
Example: ‫“ = ֵאין ִאישׁ ַבּ ַבּיִ ת‬There is not a man in the house.”
The Hebrew word ‫אין‬
ֵ “there is/are not” is an adverb of non-existence, not a verb. When used in
a nominal sentence, ‫אין‬
ֵ serves as the predicate. Like ‫יֵשׁ‬, the word ‫ ֵאין‬can be used with either a
singular or a plural subject. For example, ‫ָשׁים ַבּ ַבּיִ ת‬
ִ ‫“ = ֵאין ֲאנ‬There are not men in the
house.”
Interrogative Pronoun Example: ‫“ = ִמי ָה ִאישׁ ַבּ ַבּיִ ת‬Who is the man in the house?”
A third additional type of nominal sentence is that which begins with an interrogative pronoun,
ָ “what”, etc. (Technically, this is just an extension of the
such as ‫“ ִמי‬who,” ‫“ אַיֵּה‬where,” ‫מה‬
rule we learned in Unit 17 that a pronoun combined with almost any noun or adjective creates a
sentence.)
One Final Note on Nominal Sentences: Be aware that are cases (especially in poetry, though
this also happens in narrative prose) in which the nominal sentence is unmarked, i.e. the subject
and predicate show no difference in the level of definiteness. In these cases, the reader must
decide by the context and by common sense which element is the subject and which is the
predicate.
Unit 18
282
Homework
1. Using the Unit 18 vocabulary list, fill in the crossword puzzle below with the
correct Hebrew words. Each square will hold one consonant or vowel letter
(mater lectionis); disregard the vowel pointing.
1.
3.
Across:
2. commandment
4. Canaan
5. he passed
6. there is/are not
2.
4.
‫ן‬
‫ע‬
‫נ‬
‫כּ‬
Down:
1. for the sake of
3. he killed
4. Canaanite
6. also; more than this
5.
6.
Unit 18
283
2. Write the number of the correct translation after each phrase.
‫אַתּה יְ הוָה ְבּ ֶק ֶרב ָה ָעם ַהזֶּה‬
ָ (Num. 14:14)
‫אַך יְ הוָה הוּא‬
ְ ‫ָדע ִכּי־ ַמ ְל‬
ַ ‫( אָז י‬Jdg. 13:21)
‫( ִמן־ ַהבּ ֶֹקר ַעד־ ָה ֶע ֶרב‬Exo. 18:13)
‫תוֹך ָה ִעיר‬
ְ ‫יקם ְבּ‬
ִ ‫( ֲח ִמ ִשּׁים ַצ ִדּ‬Gen. 18:26)
‫ָביא ְבּיִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬
ִ ‫( יֵשׁ נ‬2 Kgs. 5:8)
‫( ֲח ֵמשׁ ֵמאוֹת ָשׁנָה‬Gen. 5:32)
‫ָד ָך‬
ְ ‫( ַמה־יֵּשׁ ַתּ ַחת־י‬1 Sam. 21:4)
‫ֹהנִ ים‬
ֲ ‫אַד ַמת ַהכּ‬
ְ ‫( ַרק‬Gen. 47:22)
1. from the morning until the evening
2. five hundred years
3. there is a prophet in Israel
4. only the land of the priests
5. you, LORD, are in the midst of this people
6. what is there under your hand?
7. fifty righteous within the city
8. then he knew that he was an angel of the LORD
Unit 18
284
5
3. Using the words given below, create at least eight nominal sentences in
Hebrew; then translate those sentences into English.
Indefinite Nouns
Definite Nouns
Interrogatives
Adverbs
Prepositions
‫א ֶֹהל‬
‫יָד‬
‫ָהא ֶֹהל‬
‫ַהיָּד‬
‫ָמה‬
‫ִמי‬
‫ֵאין‬
‫יֵשׁ‬
-‫ְבּ‬
‫ְליַד‬
‫ֶלד‬
ֶ‫י‬
‫ֶלד‬
ֶ ‫ַהיּ‬
‫ְכּ ִלי‬
‫ַה ְכּ ִלי‬
‫ִמי ָבּא ֶֹהל‬
who is in the tent?
Unit 18
285
4. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English.
‫( ִכּי ֵאין יְ הוָה ְבּ ִק ְר ְבּ ֶכם‬Num. 14:42)
‫ָשׁים ָה ֵא ֶלּה‬
ִ ‫( ִמי ָה ֲאנ‬Num. 22:9)
for the LORD is not in your midst
‫( ַמה־ ְשּׁמוֹ‬Exo. 3:13)
‫( יֵשׁ יְ הוָה ַבּ ָמּקוֹם ַהזֶּה‬Gen. 28:16)
‫( אַיֵּה ָה ֵע ֶדר‬Jer. 13:20)
‫( ִכּי ֵאין ֶל ֶחם וְ ֵאין ַמיִ ם‬Num. 21:5)
‫( ָמה ָה ֲא ָבנִ ים ָה ֵא ֶלּה‬Josh. 4:6)
‫( ִמי ָה ִאישׁ ֶה ָח ָכם‬Jer. 9:11)
Unit 18
286
Recommended Bibliography
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§140-141 = pp. 450-454)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996.
(§154 = pp. 564-577)
3. Lambdin, T.O., Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Norwich, 1976. (§60 = pp. 55)
*Joüon-Muraoka has the best discussion on this topic.
Unit 18
287
Unit 19
Review: Ruth
Unit Description:
The goal of this unit is to slow down a little bit and to look backward to what we achieved until
now. We will review the previous grammatical materials with the framework of the story of
Ruth and Naomi (Ruth 1). How can the characters’ names illuminate the story? – This will be
one of the questions that we will ask ourselves.
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
285
Unit 19
289
Vocabulary
Category
Nouns
Proper
Nouns
Adjectives
Number
Hebrew
Transliteration Pronunciation
English
sin,
‫ַח ָטּאת‬
hattā’t
hatat
‫ָמוֶת‬
mā́wet
mávet
‫ַמ ֲחנֶה‬
mahăneh
mahaneh
‫ִמ ְשׁ ָפּ ָחה‬
mišpāhāh
mishpaha
‫ָר ָעב‬
rā‘āb
ra’av
‫מוֹאָב‬
‫ֳמי‬
ִ ‫ָנע‬
‫רוּת‬
‫ִגּבּוֹר‬
‫ֵשׁנִ י‬
‫אַחת‬
ַ
mô’āb
mo’av
Moab
no‘ŏmî
no’omi
Naomi
rût
rut
Ruth
gibbôr
gibor
strong, mighty
šēnî
sheni
second
’ahat
’ahat
one (f.)
sin-offering (f.s.)
death (m.s.)
encampment,
camp (m.s.)
clan, family (f.s.)
famine,
hunger (m.s.)
thus, here
Adverb
‫כֹּה‬
ko
kōh
(usually points to
what follows)
‫ָע ַזב‬
’azav
‘āzab
he left,
he abandoned
he attended to,
Verbs
‫ָפּ ַקד‬
paqad
pāqad
he visited;
he appointed
‫ָשׁ ַפט‬
m. = masculine
shafat
šāpat
f. = feminine
s. = singular
Unit 19
290
he judged,
he governed
Slides from the Unit
Unit 19
291
Unit 19
292
Unit 19
293
Unit 19
294
Unit 19
295
Unit 19
296
Unit 19
297
Grammatical Remarks
The primary goal of this unit is to review previous material, but we do encounter a couple of
new grammatical points as we begin our reading in the book of Ruth.
Translating Prepositions
Because different languages use prepositions in different ways, we may find cases where we’ll
have to use an English preposition when we translate a Hebrew phrase that doesn’t use one. For
example, the phrase ‫הוּדה‬
ָ ְ‫ ֵבּית ֶל ֶחם י‬in Ruth 1:1 is translated “Bethlehem in Judah,” even
though the preposition ‫“ ב‬in” doesn’t actually appear in the Hebrew here. (Sometimes a
relationship like this is meant to be understood from the context, even when no preposition is
used.)
There are also cases in which Hebrew uses a preposition (especially after a verb) that we
wouldn’t use in English, and we don’t have to include these prepositions in our translation. For
example, in the phrase ‫“ אַל־ ִתּ ְפ ְגּ ִעי־ ִבי‬don’t urge me” (Ruth 1:16), we don’t have to use a
preposition in English. Even though this particular Hebrew verb uses the preposition ‫ ב‬before
the object pronoun (“me”), in English we would place the object pronoun directly after the verb,
so this is how we should translate.
Gentilic Suffix
The words ‫א ְפ ָר ִתים‬
ֶ “Ephrathites” (Ruth 1:2) and ‫ֹא ִביּוֹת‬
ֲ ‫“ מ‬Moabite” (Ruth 1:4) both have
what we call a “gentilic suffix.” This kind of suffix appears on words that express a person’s
nationality (compare –an in “American,” –i in “Israeli,” –ite in “Moabite,” etc.). Here is the full
paradigm of the gentilic suffix, showing examples with the Unit 18 vocabulary word ‫ְכּ ַנעֲנִ י‬
“Canaanite”:
Masculine
Feminine
Singular
Plural
‫ִ י‬- (e.g. ‫) ְכּ ַנעֲנִ י‬
‫ִ ית‬- / ‫ִ ָיּה‬- (e.g. ‫) ְכּ ַנעֲנִ ית‬
‫ִ ים‬- (e.g. ‫) ְכּ ַנעֲנִ ים‬
‫ִ יּוֹת‬- (e.g. ‫) ְכּ ַנעֲנִ יּוֹת‬
As we see in the feminine singular gentilic suffix, the letter ‫ ת‬can mark a feminine singular noun
or adjective, just like the suffix ‫ָה‬-. We see this ‫ ת‬suffix in the word ‫שׁנִ ית‬
ֵ “second (f.)” in Ruth
1:4, and we’ve already seen it on feminine singular construct endings (e.g. ‫מ ְל ַכּת‬
ַ “queen of”).
Unit 19
298
Homework
1. Read aloud the following words from the vocabulary list and write the
appropriate word under each picture below.
‫ָשׁ ַפט‬
a)
‫ֵשׁנִ י‬
‫ָעזַב‬
‫ָעזַב‬
‫ַמ ֲחנֶה‬
‫ָמוֶת‬
‫ִגּבּוֹר‬
c)
b)
d)
f)
‫מוֹאָב‬
e)
g)
h)
Unit 19
299
‫אַחת‬
ַ
2. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English.
‫( ִכּי־ ָפ ַקד יְ הוָה ְצ ָבאוֹת‬Zech. 10:3)
for the LORD of hosts/armies visited
‫( אָנ ִֹכי רוּת‬Ruth 3:9)
‫( ָה ָר ָעב ָה ִראשׁוֹן‬Gen. 26:1)
‫( ָכּל־ ִמ ְשׁ ְפּחֹת ָה ֲא ָד ָמה‬Gen. 28:14)
‫( ַח ָטּאת הוּא‬Exo. 29:14)
‫אָמר ָה ִאישׁ‬
ַ ‫כֹּה־‬
(1 Sam. 9:9)
‫אתי‬
ִ ‫( ַמה ַח ָטּ‬Gen. 31:36)
‫ֳמי‬
ִ ‫( ֵבּן ְל ָנע‬Ruth 4:17)
3. Review the material in units 1-18.
Unit 19
300
Unit 20
Qatal Verbs
Unit Description:
After discussing Hebrew nouns and adjectives, in this unit we will start the third part of the first
course – 'The verb'. We will learn about the morphology of the suffix conjugation called
"Qatal". We will see that there is a clear connection between the different persons and the
independent pronouns.
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
300
Unit 20
301
Vocabulary
Category
Nouns
Proper
Nouns
Numbers
Verbs
m. = masculine
Hebrew
Transliteration Pronunciation
English
‫אַריֵה‬
ְ
’aryēh
’arye
lion (m. s.)
‫ֵאשׁ‬
’ēš
’esh
fire (f. s.)
‫ֶדּ ֶלת‬
délet
délet
door (f. s.)
‫ִמ ְד ָבּר‬
midbār
midbar
wilderness (m. s.)
‫ַמ ֶטּה‬
matteh
mate
‫ַר ֵדּן‬
ְ‫י‬
yardēn
yarden
Jordan
‫ִר ְב ָקה‬
ribqāh
rivka
Rebekah
‫אַר ַבּע‬
ְ
’arba‘
’arba
four (f.)
‫אַר ָבּ ִעים‬
ְ
’arbā‘îm
’arba’im
forty
‫ָבּ ַרח‬
bārah
barah
he fled
‫ָפל‬
ַ‫נ‬
nāpal
nafal
he fell
‫ָשׂא‬
ָ‫נ‬
nāśā’
nasa
‫ָסגַר‬
sāgar
sagar
he shut, he closed
‫ָפּ ַתח‬
pātah
patah
he opened
‫ָר ַדף‬
rādap
radaf
f. = feminine
s. = singular
Unit 20
302
staff, branch;
tribe (m. s.)
he lifted, he
carried
he chased,
he pursued
Slides from the Unit
Unit 20
303
Unit 20
304
Unit 20
305
Unit 20
306
Unit 20
307
Unit 20
308
Unit 20
309
Unit 20
310
Grammatical Remarks
In this unit we begin our discussion of Hebrew verbs. Like the nouns, Hebrew verbs are
composed of a root and a pattern (in Course A we’re learning only the basic pattern, called “Qal”
– we’ll learn the other patterns in Course B). In contrast to English, the Hebrew verb declines
according to person, gender, and number, so each conjugation has a different form for almost
every subject.
Many different terms have been used by Biblical Hebrew scholars to describe the various verb
forms. We name each verb conjugation after the 3ms (third person masculine singular) form,
using the example root ‫ל‬-‫ט‬-‫ק‬. For example, in this unit we learn about the “Qatal” form,
whose 3ms form is ‫טל‬
ַ ‫ ָק‬. We choose to name the verbs in this way (rather than using terms like
“past,” “perfect,” etc.) because this method doesn’t bring into the morphological discussion any
assumptions about the meaning of the verb form. For each conjugation, we’ll address the form
first, then the meaning.
The Qatal Verb
This verb form is also known as the “suffix conjugation” because the subject pronoun of the verb
is attached to the basic (third masculine singular) form as a suffix. For the purposes of this unit,
we’ll translate the Qatal form as a simple past tense. But the meaning of the Qatal verb is more
complex than this, so we’ll discuss the use of this form in further detail over the next two units.
As with the pronominal suffixes, many Qatal suffixes are similar to the corresponding
independent pronouns. This connection is clear in the first and second person forms, though it is
not as evident in the third person. The full paradigm of the forms is in your workbook, but here
are a few extra notes:
•
The 3ms form has the suffix Ø (i.e. it looks like it has no suffix at all).
•
The 3fs suffix ‫ָה‬- is the same feminine singular suffix seen on nouns and adjectives.
•
The third person plural suffix ‫וּ‬- is “common” (used for masculine and/or feminine
groups).
•
The 1cs, 2ms, and 1cp forms have a penultimate (second-to-last) accent. Every other
form is accented on the last syllable.
Note: Because the verbal suffixes are so specific about the subject of each verb, a separate
subject pronoun (e.g. ‫ס ַגר‬
ָ ‫“ הוּא‬he closed”) isn’t necessary in Hebrew. But if no separate
subject is written, English (whose verb forms are not so specific) requires us to translate the
subject pronoun anyway.
Unit 20
311
Homework
1. Read aloud the following words from the vocabulary list and write the
appropriate word under each picture below.
‫אַר ַבּע‬
ְ
a)
‫אַריֵה‬
ְ
‫ִמ ְד ָבּר‬
‫ֵאשׁ‬
‫ֶדּ ֶלת‬
‫ִמ ְד ָבּר‬
‫ָפל‬
ַ‫נ‬
c)
b)
e)
d)
f)
‫ַמ ֶטּה‬
g)
h)
Unit 20
312
‫ָשׂא‬
ָ‫נ‬
2. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English.
‫( ֲאדֹנָי יְ הוִ ה ָפּ ַתח־ ִלי‬Isa. 50:5)
the LORD GOD opened for me
‫( וְ ָדוִ ד ָבּ ַרח‬1 Sam. 19:18)
‫אָמ ָרה ֶאל־ ַי ֲעקֹב ְבּנָהּ‬
ְ ‫( וְ ִר ְב ָקה‬Gen. 27:6)
‫אַח ֵרי ְבּנֵי ַי ֲעקֹב‬
ֲ ‫( וְ לֹא ָר ְדפוּ‬Gen. 35:5)
‫ָה ֲא ָבנִ ים ָה ֵא ֶלּה ֲא ֶשׁר ָל ְקחוּ‬
‫( ִמן־ ַה ַיּ ְר ֵדן‬Josh. 4:20)
‫( וַיהוָה ָסגַר ַר ְח ָמהּ‬1 Sam. 1:5)
‫אַר ָבּ ִעים ַליְ ָלה‬
ְ ְ‫אַר ָבּ ִעים יוֹם ו‬
ְ
‫אָכ ְל ִתּי‬
ַ ‫( ֶל ֶחם לֹא‬Deut. 9:18)
3. Write the Qatal verbs below in the appropriate places in the chart.
‫אָכלוּ‬
ְ
‫יְ ַשׁ ְב ֶתּם‬
‫ַר ִתּי‬
ְ ‫ָסג‬
‫ָשׁ ַמ ְענוּ‬
‫ָר ַדף‬
‫ָשׁ ַכ ְב ָתּ‬
‫ְשׁ ַל ְח ֶתּן‬
‫ָפ ְל ְתּ‬
ַ‫נ‬
Singular
‫ָפּ ְת ָחה‬
Plural
First Person Common
Second Person Masculine
Second Person Feminine
Third Person Masculine
‫אָכלוּ‬
ְ
Third Person Feminine
‫אָכלוּ‬
ְ
Unit 20
313
‫‪ָ for each subject in the‬ה ַל ְך ‪4. Write the appropriate form of the Qatal verb‬‬
‫‪sentences below, then translate.‬‬
‫)‪ (1 Sam. 10:26‬וְ ַגם־ ָשׁאוּל ָה ַל ְך ְל ֵביתוֹ‬
‫”‪“And Saul also went to his home.‬‬
‫‪And you (m.p.) also went to your home.‬‬
‫ית ֶכם‬
‫אַתּם ֲה ַל ְכ ֶתּם ְל ֵב ְ‬
‫וְ ַגם־ ֶ‬
‫ָשׁים‬
‫וְ ַגם־ ָה ֲאנ ִ‬
‫וְ ַגם־ ָר ֵחל‬
‫ַחנוּ‬
‫וְ ַגם־ ֲאנ ְ‬
‫אַתּ‬
‫וְ ַגם־ ְ‬
‫ָשׁים‬
‫וְ ַגם־ ַהנּ ִ‬
‫אַתּה‬
‫וְ ַגם־ ָ‬
‫וְ ַגם־ ֲאנִ י‬
‫אַתּנָה‬
‫וְ ַגם־ ֵ‬
‫‪Unit 20‬‬
‫‪314‬‬
‫יתם‬
‫ְל ֵב ָ‬
‫יתהּ‬
‫ְל ֵב ָ‬
‫יתנוּ‬
‫ְל ֵב ֵ‬
‫ית ְך‬
‫ְל ֵב ֵ‬
‫יתן‬
‫ְל ֵב ָ‬
‫ית ָך‬
‫ְל ֵב ְ‬
‫יתי‬
‫ְל ֵב ִ‬
‫ית ֶכן‬
‫ְל ֵב ְ‬
Recommended Bibliography
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§44 = pp. 119-122)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996.
(§42 = pp. 120-23)
3. Lambdin, T.O., Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Norwich, 1976. (§43 = pp. 37-38)
Unit 20
315
Unit 21
Translating Qatal
Unit Description:
What is the meaning of the Qatal form, and how do we translate it into English? These will be
the questions that we will ask in this unit. We will also learn how Hebrew marks the definite
direct object. We will illustrate these topics using a variety of verses from the Bible.
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
315
Unit 21
317
Vocabulary
Category
Nouns
Proper
Nouns
Definite
Direct
Object
Hebrew Transliteration Pronunciation
‫ְגּבוּל‬
gəbûl
gəvul
border, boundary,
territory (m.s.)
‫ֲחלוֹם‬
hălôm
halom
dream (m.s.)
‫ֶח ְר ָפּה‬
herpāh
herpa
reproach,
disgrace (f.s.)
‫לוּכה‬
ָ ‫ְמ‬
məlûkāh
məlukha
kingship,
royalty (f.s.)
‫ֵס ֶפר‬
sḗper
séfer
letter, document,
book, scroll (m.s.)
‫ָשׂ ָכר‬
śākār
sakhar
wages, reward
(m.s.)
‫יוֹסף‬
ֵ
‫ָל ָבן‬
‫ַעמּוֹן‬
‫ְפּ ִל ְשׁ ִתּי‬
yôsēp
yosef
Joseph
lābān
lavan
Laban
‘ammôn
’amon
Ammon
pəlištî
pəlishti
Philistine
‫ֵאת‬
’ēt
’et
(marks definite
direct
object of the verb)
‫אָסף‬
ַ
’āsap
’asaf
he gathered,
he removed
‫ָח ַלם‬
hālam
halam
he dreamed
‫ָל ַכד‬
lākad
lakhad
he captured,
he seized
‫נִ ְל ַחם‬
nilham
nilham
he fought (i.e.
engaged in battle)
Marker
Verbs
m. = masculine
English
f. = feminine
s. = singular
Unit 21
318
Slides from the Unit
Unit 21
319
Unit 21
320
Unit 21
321
Unit 21
322
Unit 21
323
Unit 21
324
Grammatical Remarks
In this unit we continue our study of the Qatal verb (the “suffix conjugation”) by examining the
common ways in which this verb might be translated in various contexts.
The Hebrew Verbal System
It is important to keep in mind that the biblical Hebrew verbal system is different in many
aspects from the English verbal system. Because of this, we shouldn’t expect that a given form
(Qatal, for example) will have an exact parallel tense in English. One of the notable
characteristics of the Hebrew verbal system, in contrast to English, is the relatively small number
of verbal forms. The fact that Hebrew has fewer forms than English often creates a situation in
which one Hebrew form covers the uses of two or more English forms.
We will emphasize this point later as well, but it may be helpful to note at this stage that biblical
Hebrew uses a “relative” tense system rather than an “absolute” tense system. English has an
“absolute” verbal system, meaning that each verb form has an absolute temporal meaning that
relates to the time of speaking: actions that occur before the speech time are in the past tense,
those that occur at the time of speaking are in the present tense, and those that will occur after
the speech time are in the future tense. Because Hebrew is a “relative” system, each verb form
derives its meaning from its contextual relationship to other verbs around it. The Qatal form, for
example, does not have an “absolute” meaning that is distinct from its context; rather, it takes its
meaning from its chronological position “relative to” its context.
Translating Qatal – Direct Speech
Qatal is commonly used in direct speech to express an action that occurred before the time
of speaking. In other words, the Qatal verb is used for an action that is in the past relative to the
present time of the speaker. Therefore, we may usually translate the Qatal verb in direct speech
with either the simple past (e.g. “we heard”) or the present perfect (e.g. “we have heard”),
depending on the context. Oftentimes either tense is possible. (The present perfect is typically
used in English to express a past event that has direct implications for the present time.)
The Definite Direct Object Marker
The Hebrew word ‫את‬
ֵ is used in Hebrew sentences to mark the definite direct object of the
verb.
•
The “direct object” is the noun that is the immediate recipient of the action expressed by
the verb. In the words of the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, it is the “word or phrase
denoting the goal or the result of the action of a verb.”
Unit 21
325
•
Remember that a “definite” direct object may include nouns and construct chains
marked by the definite article, nouns with a pronominal suffix, proper nouns (personal or
place names), and pronouns.
ֵ is written immediately before the definite direct object,
The definite direct object marker ‫את‬
often connected to it by a maqaf (which leads to a vowel change: ‫את־‬
ֶ ). We never translate ‫ֵאת‬
into English because there is no word that functions like this in the English language.
It is important to note that while this marker is very common in biblical Hebrew (it appears
almost 11,000 times in the text), it is not always used. In other words, do not be surprised to see
a definite direct object in the text that is not preceded by ‫את‬
ֵ.
Notes from the Text
Inner Object: Biblical Hebrew often uses verbs with objects that share the same root, e.g.
‫“ ֲחלוֹם ָח ַל ְמנוּ‬we dreamed a dream.” This phenomenon is called an “inner object” or “cognate
object.”
Groups & Nations: A very common method in biblical Hebrew to designate members of a
particular group or nation is with the noun ‫ ֵבּן‬. For example, ‫“ ְבּנֵי ַעמּוֹן‬children of Ammon” =
“Ammonites,” and ‫אל‬
ֵ ‫“ ְבּנֵי יִ ְשׂ ָר‬children of Israel” = “Israelites.”
Unit 21
326
Homework
1. Using the Unit 21 vocabulary list, fill in the crossword puzzle below with the
correct Hebrew words. Each square will hold one consonant or vowel letter
(mater lectionis); disregard the vowel pointing.
Across:
1.
4.
‫שׂ‬
‫כ‬
‫ר‬
3.
2. Philistine
6. document
2.
5.
7. reproach
Down:
6.
1. kingship
7.
3. Joseph
4. wages
5. he fought
2. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English.
‫אָס ְפ ִתּי‬
ַ ‫אָרץ ֲאנִ י‬
ֶ ‫( ָכּל־ ָה‬Is. 10:14)
I gathered all the earth
‫( ְגּבוּל ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם‬Gen. 47:21)
‫אָרץ‬
ֶ ‫ָבּ ָרא ֱאל ִֹהים ֵאת ַה ָשּׁ ַמיִ ם וְ ֵאת ָה‬
(Gen. 1:1)
‫( ֲחלוֹם ָח ַל ְמ ִתּי‬Gen. 41:15)
‫( ֶה ָע ִרים ֲא ֶשׁר ָל ַכ ְדנוּ‬Dt. 2:35)
‫ָתן ָל ָבן ְל ָר ֵחל‬
ַ ‫( ֲא ֶשׁר־נ‬Gen. 46:25)
‫לֹא ָל ַקח יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ֶאת־ ֶא ֶרץ מוֹאָב‬
‫( וְ ֶאת־ ֶא ֶרץ ְבּנֵי ַעמּוֹן‬Jdg. 11:15)
Unit 21
327
3. Read each of the following sentences and add the definite direct object marker
‫ ֵאת‬to the Hebrew whenever it would be expected to appear. (If it should not
appear, leave the space in the sentence blank.)
‫ָק ָראנוּ ֵאת ִס ְפרוֹ‬
‫ַה ֶלּ ֶחם‬
‫אָכל‬
ַ ‫הוּא‬
‫קוֹל‬
‫ְשׁ ַמ ְע ֶתּם‬
‫ַפּ ְרעֹה‬
‫ָע ְבדוּ‬
‫ָדּג‬
‫אָכל‬
ַ ‫הוּא‬
‫ֵס ֶפר‬
‫ָק ָראנוּ‬
‫ֶמ ֶל ְך טוֹב‬
‫ְדּ ַבר־יְ הוָה‬
‫ָע ְבדוּ‬
‫ְשׁ ַמ ְע ֶתּם‬
(we read his letter)
(he ate the bread)
(you (m.p.) heard a voice)
(they served Pharaoh)
(he ate a fish)
(we read a letter)
(they served a good king)
(you (m.p.) heard the word of the LORD)
4. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English. (Note: The definite
direct object marker ‫ ֵאת‬appears below wherever possible in the syntax of each
sentence. Remember that the verb and object may appear in any order in
Hebrew.)
‫ָל ַכד ַמ ְל ֵכּנוּ‬
our king captured
‫ָל ַכד ֶאת־ ַמ ְל ֵכּנוּ‬
‫יוֹסף ָמ ָצא‬
ֵ
‫יוֹסף ָמ ָצא‬
ֵ ‫ֶאת־‬
‫ָתנָה‬
ְ ‫אָמה נ‬
ָ ‫ָה‬
‫ָתנָה‬
ְ ‫אָמה נ‬
ָ ‫ֶאת־ ָה‬
‫ָשׁ ְלחוּ ַע ְב ֵדי־ ַה ֶמּ ֶל ְך‬
‫ָשׁ ְלחוּ ֶאת־ ַע ְב ֵדי־ ַה ֶמּ ֶל ְך‬
Unit 21
328
Recommended Bibliography
(on the subject of ‫) ֵאת‬
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§117a-m = pp. 362-66)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996.
(§125e-j = pp. 444-47)
3. Lambdin, T.O., Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Norwich, 1976. (§27 = p. 19)
Unit 21
329
Unit 22
Translating Qatal, Con't
Unit Description:
In this unit we will continue with the questions concerning the meaning and the translation of the
Qatal form. We will discover how this form performs in different sentences and how Hebrew is
different from English in this point.
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
330
Unit 22
331
Vocabulary
Category
Hebrew
English
‫ָבּ ָקר‬
bāqār
bakar
cattle, herd, ox
(m.s.)
‫ֶבח‬
ַ‫ז‬
zébah
zévah
sacrifice (m.s.)
‫יַיִ ן‬
yáyin
yáyin
wine (m.s.)
‫ַח ָלה‬
ֲ‫נ‬
nahălāh
nahala
possession,
property,
inheritance (f.s.)
‫ֵע ֶבר‬
‘ḗber
’éver
region beyond or
across; side (m.s.)
‫ֶשׁ ֶמשׁ‬
šémeš
shémesh
sun (f.s.)
‫ֶשׁ ַבע‬
šéba‘
shéva
seven (f.)
‫ִשׁ ְב ִעים‬
šib‘îm
shivim
seventy
‫ֶנגֶד‬
néged
néged
in front of, in sight
of, opposite to
Nouns
Numbers
Transliteration Pronunciation
Preposition
Adverb
Verbs
m. = masculine
‫ֵכּן‬
kēn
ken
so, thus
(usually points to
what precedes)
‫גָּאַל‬
gā’al
ga’al
he redeemed, he
acted as kinsman
‫ָבח‬
ַ‫ז‬
zābah
zavah
he slaughtered
for sacrifice
‫ָח ָטא‬
hātā’
hata
he missed (a goal or
way), he went
wrong, he sinned
‫ָכּ ַתב‬
kātab
katav
he wrote
‫ָשׁ ָתה‬
šātāh
shata
he drank
f. = feminine
s. = singular
Unit 22
332
Slides from the Unit
Unit 22
333
Unit 22
334
Unit 22
335
Unit 22
336
Unit 22
337
Unit 22
338
Unit 22
339
Unit 22
340
Grammatical Remarks
In this unit we continue our study of the Qatal verb (the “suffix conjugation”) by examining the
common ways in which this verb might be translated in various contexts.
Translating Qatal
As discussed in the previous unit, the biblical Hebrew verbal system is different in many ways
from the English verbal system. Because of this, we shouldn’t expect that a given form (Qatal,
for example) will have an exact parallel tense in English. The fact that Hebrew has fewer verb
forms than English often creates a situation in which one Hebrew form covers the uses of two or
more English forms. In contrast to the “absolute” tense system of English, Hebrew uses a
“relative” verbal system in which each verb form takes its meaning from its relationship to other
verbs in its context.
The Qatal verb expresses what we call an “anterior” relationship, i.e. it speaks of an action
that occurs before something else in its context. We must look at the context to see which verb
or event the Qatal verb is anterior to (i.e. which verb or event it occurs before), and understand
the meaning of the verb accordingly. These are the common English translations of the Qatal
verb:
1. Past Tense (“he heard”) / Present Perfect (“he has heard”) – We saw in the previous
unit that Qatal is the regular past (or present perfect) tense in direct speech, since it
naturally expresses an action that happened before the time of speaking. There are cases
also in narrative prose where the context would lead us to translate a Qatal verb with the
simple past tense. But since there is a separate verb form (see Unit 28) that functions as
the regular past tense in narrative prose, the simple past tense is a less common use of
Qatal here.
2. Past Perfect (“he had heard”) – Because the Qatal verb expresses an “anterior”
relationship in narrative, it is very often found in circumstantial and/or subordinate
clauses that give background information to the main story line. This background
information usually concerns actions that occurred before the main past tense of the
narrative, in which case the Qatal verb should be translated with the English past perfect
(the English tense for a past action that occurred before another past tense action).
3. Future Perfect (“he will have heard”) – The Qatal verb can even be found in contexts
where the action will occur in the future, but before another future action. We express
this relationship in English with the future perfect tense.
Unit 22
341
Homework
1. Read aloud the following words from the vocabulary list and write the
appropriate word under each picture below.
‫ָבּ ָקר‬
a)
‫ָז ַבח‬
‫ָשׁ ָתה‬
‫יַיִ ן‬
‫ָכּ ַתב‬
‫ֶשׁ ַבע‬
‫ֶשׁ ֶמשׁ‬
c)
b)
d)
f)
‫ִשׁ ְב ִעים‬
e)
g)
h)
Unit 22
342
‫ָשׁ ָתה‬
2. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English.
‫( ַח ָטּאתוֹ ֲא ֶשׁר ָח ָטא‬Lev. 4:28)
his sin which he sinned
‫( ֵכּן ָע ָשׂה‬Ex. 36:11)
‫( ֶנגֶד ָכּל־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬Deut. 31:11)
‫ֶבח‬
ַ ‫עוֹלה וְ לֹא ְלז‬
ָ ‫( לֹא ְל‬Josh. 22:28)
‫( גָּאַל יְ הוָה ַע ְבדּוֹ ַי ֲעקֹב‬Isa. 48:20)
‫הוּדה‬
ָ ְ‫ַח ַלת ַמ ֵטּה ְבנֵי־י‬
ֲ ‫( זֹאת נ‬Josh. 15:20)
‫ֵא ֶלּה ַה ְדּ ָב ִרים ֲא ֶשׁר ִדּ ֶבּר מ ֶֹשׁה‬
‫ַר ֵדּן‬
ְ ‫( ֶאל־ ָכּל־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ְבּ ֵע ֶבר ַהיּ‬Deut. 1:1)
3. Give the four possible translations that each of the following phrases may have
in different contexts:
‫ָתן ִלי‬
ַ ‫ֲא ֶשׁר נ‬
‫ֲא ֶשׁר ָל ַק ְח ָתּ‬
‫ִכּי לֹא ָשׁ ְמרוּ‬
‫ִכּי ָמ ְצאָה‬
1. that he had given to me
2.
3.
4.
1.
2. that you took
3.
4.
1.
2.
3. for they have not kept
4.
1.
2.
3.
4. for she will have found
Unit 22
343
4. Write the number of the correct translation after each phrase.
‫( ֵאין בּוֹ ַמיִ ם‬Gen. 37:24)
4
‫ָפלוּ ַבּ ֶח ֶרב‬
ְ ‫( ִכּי נ‬2 Sam. 1:12)
‫( וְ ִאם־יֶשׁ־ ִבּי ָעוֹן‬1 Sam. 20:8)
‫( יֵשׁ ַבּ ָבּ ִתּים ָה ֵא ֶלּה‬Jdg. 18:14)
‫תוֹך ַהגָּן‬
ְ ‫( ָה ֵעץ ֲא ֶשׁר ְבּ‬Gen. 3:3)
‫אָרץ‬
ֶ ‫( ָכּל־ ָבּ ָשׂר ֲא ֶשׁר ַעל־ ָה‬Gen. 9:17)
‫ֶיך‬
ָ ‫ָצא ָה ֱאל ִֹהים ְל ָפנ‬
ָ ‫( ִכּי־י‬1 Chr. 14:15)
‫אָמר ִכּי־ ָשׁ ַמ ְע ָתּ ְלקוֹל ִא ְשׁ ֶתּ ָך‬
ַ (Gen. 3:17)
1. for God will have gone out before you
2. there are in these houses
3. the tree that is in the middle of the garden
4. there was no water in it
5. he said, “Because you listened to the voice of your wife…”
6. but if there is sin in me
7. because they had fallen by the sword
8. all flesh that is on the earth
Unit 22
344
Unit 23
Review: Ruth, Con't
Unit Description:
Why did Naomi want to change her name to Mara? What happened to Ruth and Naomi when
they returned from Moab? These will be part of the questions that we will answer in this review
unit. The discussion will enable us to review the previous units.
(Ruth 1-2)
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
345
Unit 23
345
Vocabulary
Category
Nouns
Proper Noun
Adjectives
Hebrew
Transliteration Pronunciation
‫ַחיִ ל‬
háyil
háyil
power, strength,
wealth, army (m.s.)
‫ֵחן‬
hēn
hen
favor, grace (m.s.)
‫עֹז‬
‘ōz
’oz
strength,
might (m.s.)
‫ֶפּ ַתח‬
pétah
pétah
opening, doorway,
entrance (m.s.)
‫ָק ִציר‬
qāsîr
katsir
harvest (m.s.)
‫ֵשׁ ֶבט‬
šḗbet
shévet
rod, staff, club,
scepter; tribe (m.s.)
‫ְתּ ִח ָלּה‬
təhillāh
təhila
beginning (f.s.)
‫בּ ַֹעז‬
bṓ‘az
bó’az
Boaz
‫ָמ ֵלא‬
mālē’
male
full
‫ָקרוֹב‬
qārôb
qarov
near
‫ָרחוֹק‬
rāhôq
rahok
distant, far
‫ָמ ַל ְך‬
mālak
malakh
he was/became
king, he reigned
‫ָק ַצר‬
qāsar
katsar
he reaped,
he harvested
‫ָק ַרב‬
qārab
karav
he came near,
he approached
‫ָר ַחק‬
rāhaq
rahak
he was/became
far, distant
Verbs
m. = masculine
English
f. = feminine
s. = singular
Unit 23
346
Slides from the Unit
Unit 23
347
Unit 23
348
Unit 23
349
Unit 23
350
Unit 23
351
Unit 23
352
Grammatical Remarks
The primary goal of this unit is to review previous material, but we do encounter a couple of
new grammatical points as we continue our reading in the book of Ruth.
Narrative Verb “Vayehi”
Ruth 1:19-22 describe Naomi and Ruth’s arrival in Bethlehem. This section opens with ‫ַויְ ִהי‬
“and it came about,” “now it happened,” etc. This is a verb form that we haven’t taught yet, but
you may compare this opening to the opening of the first chapter: ‫ימי ְשׁפֹט ַהשּׁ ְֹפ ִטים‬
ֵ ‫ו ְַי ִהי ִבּ‬
“Now it came about in the days when the judges governed….” This specific verb is often
(though not always) used in the biblical text to mark the border between textual units. This
seems to be its use in Ruth 1:19, since the return to Bethlehem opens a new literary unit.
Demonstrative Pronouns
When the demonstrative pronouns ‫ ֶזה‬, ‫זֹאת‬, ‫א ֶלּה‬
ֵ “this/these,” or ‫הוּא‬, ‫ ִהיא‬, ‫ ֵהם‬, ‫ֵה ָנּה‬
“that/those,” are describing a noun, they behave just like an adjective. In other words, they
follow the noun they describe and match that noun in both number and gender. In addition, both
the noun and the demonstrative pronoun take the definite article, since “this” or “that” is a
definite concept. We omit the definite article in our English translation, since English convention
does not allow us to translate “the this ___”; but be aware that the Hebrew construction does
include the definite article. For example, ‫תח ַהזֶּה‬
ַ ‫“ = ַה ֶפּ‬this doorway,” and ‫= ַה ְסּ ָפ ִרים ַה ֵהם‬
“those letters.”
Unit 23
353
Homework
1. Using the Unit 23 vocabulary list, fill in the crossword puzzle below with the
correct Hebrew words. Each square will hold one consonant or vowel letter
(mater lectionis); disregard the vowel pointing.
1.
‫ב‬
5.
4.
‫ו‬
Across:
1. near
2. you (m.s.) became distant
6. power
‫ק ר‬
3.
2.
Down:
1. he harvested
3. favor
4. beginning
5. full
6.
2. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English.
‫תוֹך־ ָה ִעיר‬
ְ ‫( ִמ ְג ַדּל־עֹז ָהיָה ְבּ‬Jdg. 9:51)
‫( ָק ַרב ֶאל־ ַה ַמּ ֲחנֶה‬Exo. 32:19)
‫( ַעד־ ֶפּ ַתח ַה ַשּׁ ַער‬2 Sam. 11:23)
‫( וְ ֵא ֶלּה ַה ְמּ ָל ִכים ֲא ֶשׁר ָמ ְלכוּ‬Gen. 36:31)
‫חוֹקה ְמאֹד‬
ָ ‫( ֶא ֶרץ ְר‬Josh. 9:9)
‫ בּ ַֹעז‬... ‫( ֵשׁם ָה ִאישׁ‬Ruth 2:19)
‫ִאישׁ אוֹ־ ִא ָשּׁה אוֹ ִמ ְשׁ ָפּ ָחה אוֹ־ ֵשׁ ֶבט‬
(Deut. 29:17)
‫אַר ְצ ֶכם‬
ְ ‫( ְק ִציר‬Lev. 19:9)
Unit 23
354
a strong tower (lit. “tower of
strength”) was within the city
3. Circle the correct absolute form of each construct form given on the left.
‫ֲרי‬
ֵ ‫ַשׁע‬
‫תּוֹרת‬
ַ
‫ֲענַן‬
‫אַ ְרצוֹת‬
‫ְל ַבב‬
‫ֶע ְד ֵרי‬
‫ְבּנוֹת‬
‫ִמנְ חֹת‬
‫ַשׁ ַער‬
‫תּוֹרוֹת‬
‫ָענָן‬
‫ֲא ָרצוֹת‬
‫ְל ָבבוֹת‬
‫ֲד ִרים‬
ָ‫ע‬
‫ַבּת‬
‫ִמנְ חֹת‬
‫ְשׁ ָע ִרים‬
‫תּוֹרה‬
ָ
‫ֲענָנִ ים‬
‫ֶא ֶרץ‬
‫ֵל ָבב‬
‫ֵע ֶדר‬
‫ָבּנוֹת‬
‫ִמנְ ָחה‬
4. Match each pronoun on the right to the appropriate verb, then match these to a
prepositional phrase that continues the sentence (there may be more than one
logical possibility). Write the full Hebrew phrases below and translate.
‫חוֹמה‬
ָ ‫ַעל ַה‬
‫ַבּ ֶדּ ֶר ְך ַהיְ ָשׁ ָרה‬
‫ֶאל ָה ָעם‬
‫ַבּ ָשּׂדוֹת‬
‫ִמ ְפּנֵי ַה ָצּ ָבא‬
‫יכל‬
ָ ‫ְליַד ַה ֵה‬
‫ִמן ָה ִעיר‬
‫אָמ ְר ָתּ‬
ַ
‫ְבּ ַר ְח ֶתּם‬
‫ָה ַל ְכ ִתּי‬
‫ָע ַבר‬
‫ָצאוּ‬
ְ‫י‬
‫ָק ְצ ָרה‬
‫ֲמ ְד ֶתּן‬
ַ‫ע‬
Unit 23
355
‫אָנ ִֹכי‬
‫ֵה ָמּה‬
‫אַתּם‬
ֶ
‫אַתּה‬
ָ
‫הוּא‬
‫אַתּנָה‬
ֵ
‫ִהוא‬
‫אָנ ִֹכי ָה ַל ְכ ִתּי ַבּ ֶדּ ֶר ְך ַהיְ ָשׁ ָרה‬
I walked on the straight path.
Unit 23
356
Unit 24
Yiqtol Verbs
Unit Description:
The second verbal form that we will learn is the prefix conjugation called "Yiqtol". In this unit
we will learn how to recognize this form and how Hebrew marks the different persons in it. We
will discover that also in this form there is a clear connection between the different persons and
the independent pronouns.
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
360
Unit 24
357
Vocabulary
Category
Nouns
Numbers
Adverbs
Verbs
Hebrew
Transliteration Pronunciation
English
‫אוֹצר‬
ָ
’ôsār
’otsar
treasure, treasury,
storehouse (m.s.)
‫ִכּ ֵסּא‬
kissē’
kise
throne (m.s.)
*‫לוּח‬
ַ
lû́ah
lúah
tablet, plank (m.s.)
*‫ִמ ְז ֵבּ ַח‬
mizbḗah
mizbéah
altar (m.s.)
**‫עוֹלם‬
ָ
‘ôlām
’olam
long duration of time
(past or future) (m.s.)
‫ָצפוֹן‬
sā
 pôn
tsafon
north (f.s.)
*‫רוּח‬
ַ
rû́ah
rúah
breath, wind,
spirit (f.s.)
‫ְשׁמֹנֶה‬
šəmṓneh
shmóne
eight (f.)
‫ְשׁמֹנִ ים‬
šəmōnîm
shmonim
eighty
‫אוּלי‬
ַ
’ûlay
’ulay
perhaps, maybe
‫ָמ ָחר‬
māhār
mahar
tomorrow,
in time to come
‫ָכר‬
ַ‫ז‬
zākar
zakhar
he remembered
‫ָס ַפר‬
sāpar
safar
he counted
‫ָשׁ ַכח‬
šākah
shakhah
he forgot
‫ָשׁ ַפ ְך‬
šāpak
shafakh
he poured (out)
m. = masculine
f. = feminine
s. = singular
* The patah at the end of these words is called a “furtive patah,” and it is the only
case in which the vowel that appears below a consonant is pronounced before that
consonant: lûah, not lûha. This vowel only appears with the gutturals ‫ה‬, ‫ח‬, and ‫ע‬.
** With preposition: ‫ ַעד־עוֹ ָלם‬/ ‫“ = ְלעוֹ ָלם‬forever”; ‫“ = ֵמעוֹ ָלם‬from ancient
times.”
Unit 24
358
Slides from the Unit
Unit 24
359
Unit 24
360
Unit 24
361
Unit 24
362
Unit 24
363
Unit 24
364
Unit 24
365
Unit 24
366
Unit 24
367
Grammatical Remarks
In this unit we return to our discussion of Hebrew verbs. Like nouns, Hebrew verbs are
composed of a root and a pattern (in Course A we’re learning only the basic pattern, called “Qal”
– we’ll learn the other patterns in Course B). In contrast to English, the Hebrew verb declines
according to person, gender, and number, so each conjugation has a different form for almost
every subject.
Many different terms have been used by Biblical Hebrew scholars to describe the various verb
forms. We name each verb conjugation after the 3ms (third person masculine singular) form,
using the example root ‫ל‬-‫ט‬-‫ק‬. We choose to name the verbs in this way (rather than using
terms like “future tense”) because this method doesn’t bring into the morphological discussion
any assumptions about the meaning of the form. In this unit we learn about the “Yiqtol” verb,
whose 3ms form is ‫יִ ְקטֹל‬.
The Yiqtol Verb
This verb form is also known as the “prefix conjugation” because the subject pronoun of the
verb is attached to the basic form as a prefix. For the purposes of this unit, we’ll translate the
Yiqtol form as a simple future tense. But the meaning of the Yiqtol verb is more complex than
this, so we’ll discuss the use of this form in further detail over the next two units.
As with the Qatal suffixes, many Yiqtol prefixes are similar to the corresponding independent
pronouns. This connection is clear in the first and second person forms, though it is not as
evident in the third person. The full paradigm of the forms is in your workbook, but here are a
few extra notes:
•
There are two common Yiqtol patterns seen in different roots: 1. ‫ יִ ְפקֹד‬and 2. ‫יִ ְק ַרב‬. The
only difference between the forms is that wherever the long [ō] holem appears in the first
pattern, the short [a] patah is used in the second. There is no difference in meaning.
•
There are only four Yiqtol prefixes: ‫איתנ‬. Some forms are further distinguished by a
suffix.
•
The 2ms and 3fs forms are identical, so they can be distinguished from one another only
by the context. The same is true of the 2fp and 3fp forms.
•
The 2fp/3fp form is the only Yiqtol form with a penultimate (second-to-last) accent.
•
Unlike the Qatal form, the Yiqtol form does distinguish between third person plural
masculine and feminine. Yiqtol uses the suffix ‫וּ‬- only for masculine plural (2nd and 3rd).
Note: Because the verbal affixes are so specific about the subject of each verb, a separate subject
pronoun (e.g. ‫“ הוּא יִ ְסגֹּר‬he will close”) isn’t necessary in Hebrew. But if no separate subject is
written, English (whose verb forms are not so specific) requires us to translate the subject
pronoun.
Unit 24
368
The Furtive Patah
The guttural letters ‫ה‬, ‫ח‬, and ‫ע‬, which are pronounced at the back of the throat, are very
difficult to pronounce at the end of the word when they are directly preceded by the E, I, O, or U
vowels, which are pronounced in the front of the mouth. Hebrew solves this problem by
inserting a short [a] vowel (patah) between the E/I/O/U vowel and the guttural. Because the
patah is pronounced in the middle of the mouth, it helps to transition from the front of the mouth
to the back of the throat. (This phenomenon is known in linguistics as a “glide.”) Since there is
no way to write two consecutive vowels in Hebrew, the patah, called the “furtive patah,” is
written under the guttural letter, though it is pronounced before it. This is the only case in which
the vowel that appears below a consonant is actually pronounced before that consonant. For
ַ as [lû́ah], not [lûha]. Note that the furtive patah is not
example, we pronounce the word ‫לוּח‬
accented; the original accent of the word is retained.
Unit 24
369
Homework
1. Read aloud the following words from the vocabulary list and write the
appropriate word under each picture below.
‫לוּח‬
ַ
a)
‫ִמ ְז ֵבּ ַח‬
‫ָצפוֹן‬
‫ָצפוֹן‬
‫רוּח‬
ַ
‫ָשׁ ַכח‬
‫ְשׁמֹנִ ים‬
c)
b)
d)
f)
‫ְשׁמֹנֶה‬
e)
g)
h)
Unit 24
370
‫ָשׁ ַפ ְך‬
2. Write the number of the correct translation after each phrase.
‫ַאנִ י וְ ָכל־ ָה ָעם ֲא ֶשׁר ִא ִתּי נִ ְק ַרב ֶאל־ ָה ִעיר‬
ֲ‫ו‬
‫( ָמ ָחר ֶא ְשׁ ַלח‬1 Sam. 9:16)
‫אוּלי יִ ְשׁ ְמעוּ‬
ַ (Jer. 26:3)
‫ירוּשׁ ַלִם ִכּ ֵסּא יְ הוָה‬
ָ ‫ָבּ ֵעת ַה ִהיא יִ ְק ְראוּ ִל‬
‫( ִתּ ְס ְפּרוּ ֲח ִמ ִשּׁים יוֹם‬Lev. 23:16)
‫עוֹלם ְבּ ִריתוֹ‬
ָ ‫( יִ ְזכֹּר ְל‬Psa. 111:5)
(Josh. 8:5)
(Jer. 3:17)
‫אוֹצרוֹ ַהטּוֹב ֶאת־ ַה ָשּׁ ַמיִ ם‬
ָ ‫יִ ְפ ַתּח יְ הוָה ְל ָך ֶאת־‬
(Deut. 28:12)
1. Tomorrow I will send.
2. Perhaps they will listen.
3. You shall count fifty days.
4. He will remember his covenant forever.
5. At that time, they will call Jerusalem the Throne of the LORD.
6. The LORD will open for you his good storehouse, the heavens.
7. And I and all the people who are with me will approach the city.
Unit 24
371
7
3. Write the Yiqtol verbs below in the appropriate places in the chart.
‫ִתּ ְסגּ ְֹרנָה‬
‫נִ ְכתֹּב‬
‫ִתּ ְפ ְקדוּ‬
‫ִתּ ְמ ְצ ִאי‬
‫יִ ְלכֹּד‬
‫יִ ְק ְרבוּ‬
‫ֶא ְשׁכֹּן‬
‫ִתּ ְשׁמֹר‬
Singular
Plural
First Person Common
Second Person Masculine
‫ִתּ ְסגּ ְֹרנָה‬
Second Person Feminine
Third Person Masculine
‫ִתּ ְסגּ ְֹרנָה‬
Third Person Feminine
4. Write the appropriate form of the Yiqtol verb ‫ יִ ְמלֹ ְך‬for each subject in the
sentences below, then translate.
‫( ֶבּן־ ַה ֶמּ ֶל ְך יִ ְמלֹ ְך‬2 Chr. 23:3)
“The king’s son will reign.”
‫אַתּנָה ִתּ ְמל ְֹכנָה‬
ֵ
You (f.p.) will reign.
‫ַה ְמּ ָלכוֹת‬
.
.
.
.
‫אַתּ‬
ְ
‫אַתּה‬
ָ
‫אָנ ִֹכי‬
‫ְבּנֵי־ ָדוִ ד‬
.
‫ַחנוּ‬
ְ ‫ֲאנ‬
.
‫ַבּת־ ַה ֶמּ ֶל ְך‬
.
.
‫אַתּם‬
ֶ
Unit 24
372
Recommended Bibliography
(on the Yiqtol form)
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§47 = pp. 125-29)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996.
(§44 = pp. 135-38)
3. Lambdin, T.O., Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Norwich, 1976.
(§90 = pp. 99-100; §94 = p. 103)
(on the furtive patah)
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§22f = pp. 77-78)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996. (§21c = pp. 87)
3. Lambdin, T.O., Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Norwich, 1976. (§6 = p. xxi)
Unit 24
373
Unit 25
Translating Yiqtol
Unit Description:
What is the meaning of the Yiqtol form, and how do we translate it into English? These will be
the questions that we will ask in this unit. We will illustrate these topics using a variety of verses
from the Bible.
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
375
Unit 25
375
Vocabulary
Category
Hebrew
Transliteration Pronunciation
‫ֱא ֶמת‬
’ĕmet
’emet
firmness, truth,
faithfulness (f.s.)
‫ָמל‬
ָ‫גּ‬
gāmāl
gamal
camel (m.s.)
‫גֵּר‬
gēr
ger
sojourner,
temporary
resident,
new-comer (m.s.)
‫כּ ַֹח‬
kṓah
kóah
strength,
power (m.s.)
‫ֵע ָדה‬
‘ēdāh
’eda
congregation,
company (f.s.)
‫ֵר ַע‬
rḗa‘
réa
friend, companion,
fellow (m.s.)
‫ֶא ְפ ַריִ ם‬
’epráyim
’efráyim
Ephraim
‫ַשּׁה‬
ֶ ‫ְמנ‬
mənaššeh
mənashe
Manasseh
‫ְסדֹם‬
sədōm
sədom
Sodom
*‫ֲה‬
hă-
ha-
whether, if
‫ָגּנַב‬
gānab
ganav
he stole
‫ָק ַבר‬
qābar
qavar
he buried
‫ָר ַצח‬
rāsah
ratsah
he murdered
‫ָשׁאַל‬
šā’al
sha’al
he asked (for),
he inquired (of)
‫ָשׁ ַבר‬
šābar
shavar
he broke
Nouns
Proper
Nouns
Interrogative
Verbs
English
m. = masculine
f. = feminine
s. = singular
* ‫ ַה‬before a shewa or before a guttural; ‫ ֶה‬before a guttural followed by a qamas
Unit 25
376
Slides from the Unit
Unit 25
377
Unit 25
378
Unit 25
379
Unit 25
380
Unit 25
381
Unit 25
382
Unit 25
383
Unit 25
384
Grammatical Remarks
In this unit we continue our study of the Yiqtol verb (the “prefix conjugation”) by examining the
common ways in which this verb might be translated in various contexts.
The Hebrew Verbal System
As we discussed in unit 21, the biblical Hebrew verbal system is different in many aspects from
the English verbal system. Because of this, we shouldn’t expect that a given form (Yiqtol, for
example) will have an exact parallel tense in English. One of the notable characteristics of the
Hebrew verbal system, in contrast to English, is the relatively small number of verbal forms. The
fact that Hebrew has fewer forms than English often creates a situation in which one Hebrew
form covers the uses of two or more English forms.
Remember also that biblical Hebrew uses a “relative” tense system rather than an “absolute”
tense system. English has an “absolute” verbal system, meaning that each verb form has an
absolute temporal meaning that relates to the time of speaking: actions that occur before the
speech time are in the past tense, those that occur at the time of speaking are in the present tense,
and those that will occur after the speech time are in the future tense. Because Hebrew is a
“relative” system, each verb form derives its meaning from its contextual relationship to other
verbs around it. The Yiqtol form, for example, does not have an “absolute” meaning that is
distinct from its context; rather, it takes its meaning from its chronological position “relative to”
its context.
Translating Yiqtol
1. Future Tense (“he will hear”) – Yiqtol is commonly used in direct speech to express an
action that will occur after the time of speaking. In other words, the Yiqtol verb is used
for an action that is in the future relative to the present time of the speaker. Therefore, we
may usually translate the Yiqtol verb in direct speech with the simple future tense. Keep
in mind that this might also take the form of a question (“Will he hear?”).
2. Conditional Sentences (“if he hears”) – The Yiqtol verb is also used in conditional
sentences, which are usually translated in English with a present verb form.
3. Language of the Law (“he shall hear”) – The Yiqtol form is also used as the language of
the law, expressing a general command. This is typically translated in English with
“shall.”
Unit 25
385
Interrogative Heh
In addition to using independent interrogative pronouns (‫מה‬
ָ “what,” ‫“ ִמי‬who,” etc.), Hebrew
can also mark any sentence as a question by attaching the interrogative ‫ ה‬to the beginning of the
question. This “interrogative ‫ ”ה‬may appear before any part of speech (verb, noun, adjective,
etc.), depending on the structure of the sentence – it will attach to whichever word comes first.
Its literal translation may be understood as, “Is it that…?” (i.e. “Is it true that…?”), but it can
typically be interpreted in English simply by changing the structure of the sentence to a question
(e.g. “Did you…?” “Will you…?”) and adding the question mark at the end.
Regular Form
Before a shewa
Before ‫א‬, ‫ה‬, ‫ח‬, ‫ע‬, ‫ר‬
Before ‫א‬, ‫ה‬, ‫ח‬, ‫ע‬, ‫ ר‬pointed
with a qamats
‫ֲה‬
‫ַה‬
‫ַה‬
‫ֶה‬
‫“ ֲה ִת ְזכֹּר‬Will you remember?”
‫“ ַה ְכ ַת ְב ֶתּם‬Did you write?”
‫“ ַה ֶע ֶבד הוּא‬Is he a servant?”
‫“ ֶה ָח ָכם הוּא‬Is he wise?”
•
The interrogative ‫ ה‬is usually pointed with the reduced [ă] vowel, the hataf patah.
•
Since Hebrew cannot begin a word with two shewas (or with a reduced vowel and a
shewa), when the interrogative ‫ ה‬appears before a letter with a shewa, it is pointed with
the short [a] patah instead of by the usual reduced [ă]. (Though this form of the
interrogative looks very much like the definite article ‫ה‬, remember that the definite
article is usually accompanied by a dagesh in the first letter of the attached word, which
is not the case with the interrogative ‫ה‬.)
•
The interrogative ‫ ה‬is also pointed with the short [a] patah when it appears before a word
beginning with a guttural letter.
•
The interrogative ‫ ה‬is pointed with short [e] seghol when it appears before a guttural that
is followed by a long [ā] qamats.
•
The changes made to the form of the interrogative ‫ ה‬before a shewa or a guttural may
lead to situations in which the interrogative ‫ ה‬takes the same form as the definite article.
In such cases, the reader must decide the meaning by the context.
Unit 25
386
Homework
1. Read aloud the following words from the vocabulary list and write the
appropriate word under each picture below.
‫ָשׁאַל‬
‫ְסדֹם‬
a)
‫ֵר ַע‬
‫ֵע ָדה‬
‫גֵּר‬
‫גֵּר‬
b)
d)
c)
‫כּ ַֹח‬
e)
g)
f)
Unit 25
387
‫ָמל‬
ָ‫גּ‬
2. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English.
And you (m.p.) shall not break a
bone in it.
‫( וְ ֶע ֶצם לֹא ִת ְשׁ ְבּרוּ־בוֹ‬Exo. 12:46)
‫( ֵאין־ ֱא ֶמת וְ ֵאין־ ֶח ֶסד‬Hos. 4:1)
‫אָמר יְ הוָה ֲה ָר ַצ ְח ָתּ‬
ַ ‫( כֹּה‬1 Kgs. 21:19)
‫( ַמ ֲחנֵה ֶא ְפ ַריִ ם‬Num. 2:24)
‫ַשּׁה‬
ֶ ‫( ַעל־רֹאשׁ ְמנ‬Gen. 48:14)
‫ֶא ְשׁבֹּר ֶאת־ ָה ָעם ַהזֶּה וְ ֶאת־ ָה ִעיר‬
‫( ַהזֹּאת‬Jer 19:11)
‫אַב ָר ָהם ֶאת־ ָשׂ ָרה ִא ְשׁתּוֹ‬
ְ ‫ָק ַבר‬
(Gen. 23:19)
‫( ֲהלוֹא יִ ְגנְ בוּ‬Oba. 1:5)
3. Sort the following words into the appropriate columns, according to whether
the initial ‫ ה‬is the interrogative ‫ה‬, the definite article “the,” or could be either
and must be determined by the context. (See units 10-11 for the forms of the
definite article.)
‫ַה ֶא ְפקֹד‬
‫ַההוּא‬
Interrogative ‫ה‬
‫ָה ֶא ֶבן‬
‫ֲה ִת ְמ ְצאוּ‬
‫ַהיָּם‬
‫ַה ֵאשׁ‬
Definite Article
‫ַה ֶא ְפקֹד‬
Unit 25
388
‫ֲהיָם‬
‫ֶה ָע ָפר‬
Either (must decide by context)
‫‪4. Translate the following questions from Hebrew into English.‬‬
‫?‪Has he said‬‬
‫אָמר‬
‫)‪ַ (Num. 23:19‬ההוּא ַ‬
‫קוֹל ָך זֶה‬
‫)‪ֲ (1 Sam. 26:17‬ה ְ‬
‫אַתּה ָה ִאישׁ‬
‫)‪ַ (Jdg. 13:11‬ה ָ‬
‫אָרץ‬
‫ֲהלוֹא־זֶה ָדוִ ד ֶמ ֶל ְך ָה ֶ‬
‫)‪(1 Sam. 21:12‬‬
‫)‪ֲ (Jdg. 4:20‬היֵשׁ־פֹּה ִאישׁ‬
‫ֳמי‬
‫)‪ֲ (Ruth 1:19‬הזֹאת ָנע ִ‬
‫)‪ֲ (Eze. 22:2‬ה ִת ְשׁפֹּט ֶאת־ ָה ִעיר‬
‫ֲב ִדים‬
‫אַתּם ע ָ‬
‫ֲהלוֹא אָנ ִֹכי ַה ְפּ ִל ְשׁ ִתּי וְ ֶ‬
‫)‪ְ (1 Sam. 17:8‬ל ָשׁאוּל‬
‫‪Unit 25‬‬
‫‪389‬‬
Recommended Bibliography
(on the interrogative ‫)ה‬
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§100 k-n = p. 296)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996.
(§102 l-o = pp. 334-35)
3. Lambdin, T.O., Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Norwich, 1976. (§54 = p. 48)
Unit 25
390
Unit 26
Translating Yiqtol, Con't
Unit Description:
In this unit we will continue with the questions concerning the meaning and the translation of the
Yiqtol form. We will discover how this form performs in different sentences and how Hebrew is
different from English in this point.
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
390
Unit 26
391
Vocabulary
Category
Nouns
Proper
Nouns
Numbers
Verbs
m. = masculine
Hebrew
Transliteration Pronunciation
English
‫אָחוֹת‬
‫ָבּ ָמה‬
’āhôt
’ahot
sister (f.s.)
bāmāh
bama
high place (f.s.)
‫ַבּ ַעל‬
bá‘al
bá’al
‫רוֹע‬
ַ ‫ְז‬
zərốa‘
zəróa
‫ַשׁ ָבּת‬
‫אַחאָב‬
ְ
‫ֵא ִליָּהוּ‬
‫ישׁע‬
ָ ‫ֱא ִל‬
‫ַבּ ַעל‬
‫ֶע ְשׂ ִרים‬
‫ְשׁל ִֹשׁים‬
‫ָבּ ַחר‬
šabbāt
shabat
sabbath (b.s.)
’ah’āb
’ahav
Ahab
’ēliyyā́hû
’eliyáhu
Elijah
’ĕlîšā‘
’elisha
Elisha
bá‘al
bá’al
Baal
‘eśrîm
’esrim
twenty
šəlōšîm
shəloshim
thirty
bāhar
bahar
he chose
‫ָח ָלה‬
hālāh
halah
‫ָכּ ַרת‬
‫ָשׂ ַרף‬
kārat
karat
he cut (off/down)*
śārap
saraf
he burned
f. = feminine
b. = both m. and f.
owner, lord,
husband (m.s.)
arm, shoulder,
strength (f.s.)
he was weak,
he was sick
s. = singular
* The expression ‫“ ָכּ ַרת ְבּ ִרית‬he cut a covenant” means “he made a covenant.”
Unit 26
392
Slides from the Unit
Unit 26
393
Unit 26
394
Unit 26
395
Unit 26
396
Unit 26
397
Unit 26
398
Unit 26
399
Grammatical Remarks
In this unit we continue our study of the Yiqtol verb (the “prefix conjugation”) by examining the
common ways in which this verb might be translated in various contexts.
Translating Yiqtol
As discussed previously, the Yiqtol form (like other Hebrew verbs) does not have an exact
parallel tense in English. In part because Hebrew has fewer verb forms than English, the single
Hebrew verb form Yiqtol covers the uses of several different English forms. Remember also that
Hebrew uses a “relative” verbal system in which each verb form takes its meaning from its
relationship to other verbs in its context. The uses of the Yiqtol verb in biblical Hebrew come
under two main categories:
1. Posterior Action – The Yiqtol verb expresses what we call a “posterior” relationship, i.e.
it speaks of an action that occurs after (or in the future relative to) something else in its
context. We must look at the context to see which verb or event the Yiqtol verb is
posterior to (i.e. which verb or event it occurs after), and understand the meaning of the
verb accordingly. As discussed in Unit 25, this often means that we can translate a Yiqtol
verb, especially in direct speech, with the simple future tense or as a conditional.
However, when the Yiqtol form appears in the context of a past tense narrative, the
translation is more difficult. Different contexts may require this verb to be translated
“could do,” “would do,” “was to do,” “should do,” “might do,” etc. The point is that the
Yiqtol action happens after something else.
2. Habitual / Repeated Action –Yiqtol is also used for any habitual or repeated action.
This includes the language of the law (Unit 25), commands meant to be continually
followed.
•
General Truth, Habitual Present – Habitual present is used for an action that is
repeated over a period of time, beginning in the past and extending into the future,
e.g. “He reads the newspaper every morning.” Likewise, a general truth is true not
only in the present, but also at any point in the past or in the future. It is often seen
in proverbial phrases such as, “A bribe blinds those who see” (Exodus 23:8). In
both cases, the Yiqtol verb may be translated in English with the simple present.
•
Past Iterative – The Yiqtol form may also be used in the context of a past tense
narrative for repeated or continued action in the past (English: “he used to do” or
“he would do”). This is very similar to the habitual present; the only difference
between them is that with the past iterative, the action occurs and is repeated only
in the past.
Unit 26
400
Homework
1. Using the Unit 26 vocabulary list, fill in the crossword puzzle below with the
correct Hebrew words. Each square will hold one consonant or vowel letter
(mater lectionis); disregard the vowel pointing.
1.
3.
2.
‫י שׁ ע‬
‫א ל‬
4.
6.
5.
7.
Across:
2. Elisha
5. owner
6. arm
7. sabbath
Down:
1. Ahab
2. sister
3. twenty
4. thirty
2. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English.
‫אַחר ַה ְדּ ָב ִרים ָה ֵא ֶלּה ָח ָלה ֶבּן־ ָה ִא ָשּׁה‬
ַ
after these things, the son of
the woman became sick
(1 Kgs. 17:17)
‫יאי ַה ַבּ ַעל‬
ֵ ‫( ָכל־נְ ִב‬2 Kgs. 10:19)
‫( ַבּ ָמּקוֹם ֲא ֶשׁר־יִ ְב ַחר יְ הוָה‬Deut. 16:2)
‫( ֲאנִ י ֶא ְכרֹת ִא ְתּ ָך ְבּ ִרית‬2 Sam. 3:13)
‫( ָכּל־ ֲא ֶשׁר ָע ָשׂה ֵא ִליָּהוּ‬1 Kgs. 19:1)
‫דוֹלה‬
ָ ‫( ִכּי ִהיא ַה ָבּ ָמה ַה ְגּ‬1 Kgs. 3:4)
‫וְ ָה ִעיר ָשׂ ְרפוּ ָב ֵאשׁ וְ ָכל־ ֲא ֶשׁר ָבּהּ‬
(Josh. 6:24)
Unit 26
401
3. Write the appropriate form of the Yiqtol verb ‫ יִ ְשׁ ַלח‬for each subject in the
sentences below, then translate.
‫( ֶאת־ ִמי ֶא ְשׁ ַלח‬Isa. 6:8)
“Whom shall I send?”
‫ֶאת־ ִמי יְ הוָה יִ ְשׁ ַלח‬
Whom shall the LORD send?
‫אַתּה‬
ָ ‫ֶאת־ ִמי‬
.
‫ֶאת־ ִמי ַה ְמּ ָל ִכים‬
.
‫ַחנוּ‬
ְ ‫ֶאת־ ִמי ֲאנ‬
.
.
‫אַתּ‬
ְ ‫ֶאת־ ִמי‬
‫ֶאת־ ִמי ַה ְמּ ָלכוֹת‬
.
‫אַתּם‬
ֶ ‫ֶאת־ ִמי‬
.
.
.
‫ֳמי‬
ִ ‫ֶאת־ ִמי ָנע‬
‫אַתּנָה‬
ֵ ‫ֶאת־ ִמי‬
Unit 26
402
4. Write the number of the correct translation after each phrase, paying attention
to how the Yiqtol form is translated in each context.
‫( ָל ָמּה זֶּה ִתּ ְשׁאַל ִל ְשׁ ִמי‬Jdg. 13:18)
‫( וְ לֹא ִי ְשׁ ְמעוּ‬1 Sam. 2:25)
‫אָדם ִתּ ְשׁ ְפּטוּ‬
ָ ‫( ִכּי לֹא ְל‬2 Chr. 19:6)
‫ ָבּ ֵאשׁ‬... ‫ית ָך ִנ ְשׂרֹף‬
ְ ‫( ֵבּ‬Jdg. 12:1)
‫( ֶצ ֶדק ֶצ ֶדק ִתּ ְרדֹּף‬Deut. 16:20)
3
‫( ִכּי־ ִמי ִי ְשׁפֹּט ֶא ְת־ ַע ְמּ ָך ַהזֶּה ַהגָּדוֹל‬2 Chr. 1:10)
‫מוֹעד‬
ֵ ‫( וְ לֹא־ ִי ְק ְרבוּ עוֹד ְבּנֵי יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ֶאל־א ֶֹהל‬Num. 18:22)
‫וּמ ְל ָח ָמה ֶא ְשׁבּוֹר‬
ִ ‫( וְ ֶק ֶשׁת וְ ֶח ֶרב‬Hos. 2:20)
1. But they would not listen.
2. For you do not judge for man.
3. Why do you ask for my name?
4. Justice, justice you shall pursue.
5. We will burn your house with fire.
6. And bow and sword and war I will break.
7. For who can govern this great people of yours?
8. The Israelites shall not come near the tent of meeting again.
Unit 26
403
Unit 27
Review: Ruth, Con't
Unit Description:
What is the semantic connection between the “resting place” and Naomi’s plans for Ruth? (Ruth
3:1) How is the author of the book playing with the connotations of the verbs 'to know' and 'to
lay down'? These will be some of the questions that we will answer in this review unit. The
discussion will enable us to review the previous units.
(Ruth 3)
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
405
Unit 27
405
Vocabulary
Category
Hebrew
Transliteration Pronunciation
English
‫גּ ֶֹרן‬
gṓren
góren
threshing-floor
(m.s.)
‫ֶשׁם‬
ֶ‫גּ‬
géšem
géshem
rain, shower (m.s.)
‫ֲח ִצי‬
hăsî
hatsi
half (m.s.)
‫ָכּנָף‬
kānāp
kanaf
wing, extremity (of
garment, earth) (f.s.)
‫ְכּרוּב‬
kərûb
kəruv
cherub (m.s.)
‫ָק ֶצה‬
qāseh
qatse
end, edge,
extremity (m.s.)
Proper
‫אַהרֹן‬
ֲ
’ahărōn
’aharon
Aaron
Nouns
‫ֵלוִ י‬
lēwî
levi
Levi, Levite
‫ֵשׁשׁ‬
šēš
shesh
six (f.)
‫ִשׁ ִשּׁים‬
šiššîm
shishim
sixty
‫ְתּמוֹל‬
təmôl
təmol
yesterday,
recently, formerly
‫ִבּ ֵקּשׁ‬
biqqēš
biqesh
he sought
‫ָפּ ַרשׂ‬
pāraś
paras
he spread (out)
‫ָר ַחץ‬
rāhas
rahats
he washed (off/
away), he bathed
‫ָשׂ ַמח‬
śāmah
samah
he rejoiced,
he was glad
Nouns
Numbers
Adverb
Verbs
m. = masculine
f. = feminine
s. = singular
Unit 27
406
Slides from the Unit
Unit 27
407
Unit 27
408
Unit 27
409
Unit 27
410
Unit 27
411
Grammatical Remarks
The primary goal of this unit is to review previous material, but we do encounter several new
topics as we conclude our reading in the book of Ruth.
Echoing Earlier Texts
In the beginning of her speech (3:1), Naomi doesn’t explicitly say how she intends to make
things better for her daughter-in-law; but the attentive reader may catch a hint in her choice of
words. In ‫נוֹח‬
ַ ‫“( ֲא ַב ֶקּשׁ ָל ְך ָמ‬Shouldn’t I seek for you a resting place?”) there is an echo of
Ruth 1:9:‫ישׁהּ‬
ָ ‫נוּחה ִא ָשּׁה ֵבּית ִא‬
ָ ‫וּמ ֶצא ָן ְמ‬
ְ (“May each of you find rest in the home of her
husband”). By this connection, we see that the implicit meaning of ‫נוֹח‬
ַ ‫“ ָמ‬rest” in 3:1 is “a
home and a husband.” This manner of using previous vocabulary to make a point is common in
Biblical Hebrew narrative.
Ellipsis
Hebrew, like English, can sometimes omit words that should be understood by the context. We
see an example in Ruth 3:2, where the word ‫ֹרן‬
ֶ ‫“ גּ‬threshing floor” is used as an ellipsis for the
barley that is on the threshing floor. This verse literally reads, “He is winnowing the threshing
floor” – but of course he is winnowing the barley, not the floor itself. (Such an expression may
be compared to an English sentence like, “The actors performed for a full house” – of course
they performed for the people in the building, not for the building itself.)
Vocabulary Notes
•
•
‫“ ַה ָלּיְ ָלה‬the night” is used in Hebrew for “tonight,” just as ‫ ַהיּוֹם‬is used for “today.”
‫יטב ִלבּוֹ‬
ַ ִ‫“ וַיּ‬his heart was well” (Ruth 3:7) is a Hebrew idiom that means, “He was
happy.”
•
‫( ָכּ ָנף‬Ruth 3:9) apparently refers to the “edge” of one’s garment. In the ancient Near
East, the edge of a person’s garment symbolized identity and the authority of and
protection given by that person. This metaphor also appears in several other places in the
biblical text.
Unit 27
412
Homework
1. Read aloud the following words from the vocabulary list and write the
appropriate word under each picture below.
‫ִבּ ֵקּשׁ‬
a)
‫גּ ֶֹרן‬
‫ִבּ ֵקּשׁ‬
‫ֶשׁם‬
ֶ‫גּ‬
‫ֲח ִצי‬
‫ָכּנָף‬
‫ֵשׁשׁ‬
c)
b)
d)
f)
‫ָר ַחץ‬
e)
g)
h)
Unit 27
413
‫ִשׁ ִשּׁים‬
2. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English.
either yesterday or today (lit.
“also yesterday, also today”)
‫( גַּם־ ְתּמוֹל גַּם־ ַהיּוֹם‬1 Sam. 20:27)
‫רוּבים‬
ִ ‫( ַתּ ַחת ַכּנְ ֵפי ַה ְכּ‬1 Kgs. 8:6)
‫( ָפּ ַרשׂ ָענָן‬Psa. 105:39)
‫( ֵלוִ י אָנ ִֹכי‬Jdg. 17:9)
‫( ִבּ ְק ֵצה ַה ִמּ ְד ָבּר‬Exo. 13:20)
‫( יִ ְשׂ ַמח ָה ָעם‬Pro. 29:2)
‫אַהרֹן‬
ֲ ‫ִצוָּה יְ הוָה ֶאת־מ ֶֹשׁה וְ ֶאת־‬
(Exo. 12:50)
3. Do the following verbs express action that occurred yesterday (‫ ) ְתּמוֹל‬or will
ָ )? Sort the verbs into the appropriate columns. (Assume
occur tomorrow (‫מ ָחר‬
that they appear in the context of direct speech, in which the Qatal form
expresses simple past and the Yiqtol form expresses simple future.)
‫יִ ְשׁ ַמע‬
‫ָק ְראוּ‬
‫ְר ַח ְצ ֶתּן‬
‫ִתּ ְכתֹּב‬
‫יִ ְק ְראוּ‬
‫ִתּ ְר ַח ְצנָה‬
‫ְתּמוֹל‬
‫ָשׁ ַמע‬
‫ָכּ ַת ְב ָתּ‬
‫ָמ ָחר‬
‫יִ ְשׁ ַמע‬
4. Review the material in units 1-26, especially the verbs in units 20-26.
Unit 27
414
Unit 28
Wayyiqtol Verbs
Unit Description:
The third verbal form that we will learn is the form Wayyiqtol. In the first part of this unit we
will learn how to recognize this form. In the second part we will discover what the meaning of
this form is and how to translate it into English. We will illustrate its usages using a variety of
verses from the Bible.
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
420
Unit 28
415
Vocabulary
Category
Hebrew
‫ֵאל‬
Transliteration
’ēl
Pronunciation
’el
English
God, god (m.s.)
‫אַל ָמנָה‬
ְ
’almānāh
’almana
widow (f.s.)
‫אַמּה‬
ָ
’ammāh
’ama
cubit (length of
the forearm) (f.s.)
‫ָכּבוֹד‬
kābôd
kavod
abundance, honor,
glory (m.s.)
‫ֲשׂה‬
ֶ ‫ַמע‬
ma‘ăśeh
ma’ase
deed, work (m.s.)
‫צוּר‬
sûr
tsur
rock, cliff (m.s.)
‫ָר ָעה‬
rā‘āh
ra’a
evil, misery,
distress, injury (f.s.)
‫ֶא ְל ָעזָר‬
’el‘āzār
’elazar
Eleazar
‫ָמן‬
ִ ‫ִבּנְ י‬
binyāmin
binyamin
Benjamin
‫הוֹשׁ ַע‬
ֻ ְ‫י‬
yəhôšúa‘
yehoshúa
Joshua
‫יוֹאָב‬
yô’āb
yoav
Joab
‫ָבּ ַטח‬
bātah
batah
he trusted
‫ָדל‬
ַ‫גּ‬
gādal
gadal
he grew (up), he
became great
Nouns
Proper
Nouns
‫ָדּ ַרשׁ‬
dāraš
darash
he sought, he
inquired of (often
used of seeking
counsel from a deity)
‫ָעזַר‬
‘āzar
’azar
he helped
Verbs
m. = masculine
f. = feminine
s. = singular
Unit 28
416
Slides from the Unit
Unit 28
417
Unit 28
418
Unit 28
419
Unit 28
420
Unit 28
421
Unit 28
422
Unit 28
423
Unit 28
424
Grammatical Remarks
In this unit we return to our discussion of Hebrew verbs. As with the Qatal and Yiqtol forms, we
have named this third verb pattern “Wayyiqtol” after the 3ms form of the verb (‫)וַיִּ ְקטֹל‬. In this
way, we can name the verb only by its morphology without presuming anything about its
meaning.
The Wayyiqtol Verb – Morphology
The Wayyiqtol form is also known as a “prefix conjugation” because the subject pronoun of the
verb is attached to the basic form as a prefix. In fact, the Wayyiqtol form is identical to the Yiqtol
form with a prefixed conjunction ‫ו‬. The full paradigm is in your workbook, but here are a few
extra notes:
•
The only visible difference between the Wayyiqtol form and the Yiqtol form with a
simple conjunction (at least in the basic pattern, which is all we’ll study in this first level)
is that the Wayyiqtol form begins with ‫( ַו‬instead of ְ‫ )ו‬and inserts a dagesh into the
subject prefix letter.
•
The 1cs form takes a qamats under the ‫ ו‬and shows no dagesh in the prefixed ‫ ;א‬since
the guttural ‫ א‬cannot take a dagesh, the preceding short [a] vowel is lengthened to
compensate.
•
The medieval grammarians gave the name “waw conversive” to the Wayyiqtol ‫ו‬, since
they assumed that this ‫ ו‬converted a future verb into a past tense verb. But modern
scholars understand from comparative Semitics that there were once two different
prefixed forms with entirely different functions. One of these became the Yiqtol form,
and the other developed into the Wayyiqtol form. So it seems that the Wayyiqtol form is
actually an ancient past tense form conserved after what medieval grammarians called
the “waw conversive.”
Translating Wayyiqtol
The Wayyiqtol form is used as the regular narrative past tense in Biblical Hebrew prose,
expressing the main line of action in a past tense narrative, so it is usually translated with the
English simple past. We may translate the Wayyiqtol ‫ ו‬into English (“and,” “so,” “then,” etc.);
but within certain contexts sometimes it is also possible or even preferable to omit this
conjunction in the translation. Since the verbal affixes are so specific about the subject of each
verb, a separate subject pronoun (e.g. ‫“ וַיִּ ְסגֹּר הוּא‬he closed”) isn’t necessary in Hebrew. But if
no separate subject is written, English (whose verb forms are not so specific) requires us to
translate the subject pronoun.
Unit 28
425
Homework
1. Using the Unit 28 vocabulary list, fill in the crossword puzzle below with the
correct Hebrew words. Each square will hold one consonant or vowel letter
(mater lectionis); disregard the vowel pointing.
Across
2. he helped
4. widow
5. honor
7. evil
1.
‫מ‬
2.
‫ע‬
‫שׂ‬
‫ה‬
3.
4.
6.
5.
7.
Down
1. deed
3. god
4. cubit
6. he sought
2. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English.
‫הוֹשׁ ַע ְשׁל ִֹשׁים ֶא ֶלף ִאישׁ‬
ֻ ְ‫וַיִּ ְב ַחר י‬
And Joshua chose 30,000 men…
(Josh. 8:3)
‫ֶלד‬
ֶ ‫( וַיִּ ְג ַדּל ַהיּ‬Gen. 21:8)
‫( ִכּי־ ָב ְטחוּ בוֹ‬1 Chr. 5:20)
‫צוּרם‬
ָ ‫( וַיִּ ְז ְכּרוּ ִכּי־ ֱאל ִֹהים‬Psa. 78:35)
‫ָתן‬
ָ ‫וַיִּ ְק ְבּרוּ ֶאת־ ַע ְצמוֹת־ ָשׁאוּל וִ יהוֹנ‬
‫ָמן‬
ִ ‫( ְבּנוֹ ְבּ ֶא ֶרץ ִבּנְ י‬2 Sam. 21:14)
‫ ֶא ְל ָעזָר ַהכּ ֵֹהן‬... ‫ָשׁים‬
ִ ‫ֵא ֶלּה ְשׁמוֹת ָה ֲאנ‬
‫יהוֹשׁ ַע‬
ֻ ִ‫( ו‬Num. 34:17)
‫וַיִּ ְשׁ ַמע ָדּוִ ד וַיִּ ְשׁ ַלח ֶאת־יוֹאָב וְ ֵאת‬
‫( ָכּל־ ַה ָצּ ָבא‬2 Sam. 10:7)
Unit 28
426
3. Are the following verbs written in the Wayyiqtol form, or are they simply Yiqtol
verbs with a prefixed conjunction? Circle the correct form and translate.
‫וְ יִ ְכתֹּב‬
Wayyiqtol
ְ‫ ו‬+ Yiqtol
and he will write
‫ַתּ ְכ ְתּ ִבי‬
ִ‫ו‬
Wayyiqtol
ְ‫ ו‬+ Yiqtol
and you (f.s.) wrote
‫ַתּ ְרדֹּף‬
ִ‫ו‬
Wayyiqtol
ְ‫ ו‬+ Yiqtol
‫וְ ִת ְזכּ ְֹרנָה‬
Wayyiqtol
ְ‫ ו‬+ Yiqtol
‫וְ יִ ְשׁ ְלחוּ‬
Wayyiqtol
ְ‫ ו‬+ Yiqtol
‫ָא ְשׁפֹּט‬
ֶ‫ו‬
Wayyiqtol
ְ‫ ו‬+ Yiqtol
‫וְ נִ ְז ַבּח‬
Wayyiqtol
ְ‫ ו‬+ Yiqtol
‫ַתּ ְק ְצרוּ‬
ִ‫ו‬
Wayyiqtol
ְ‫ ו‬+ Yiqtol
4. Convert the following Yiqtol verbs to the Wayyiqtol form.
Yiqtol
Wayyiqtol
‫יִ ְכתֹּב‬
‫ִתּ ְד ְרשׁוּ‬
‫נִ ְסגֹּר‬
‫ֶא ְפקֹד‬
‫ִתּ ְר ַחק‬
‫ִתּ ְב ְט ִחי‬
‫יִ ְגנְ בוּ‬
‫ִתּ ְשׁ ַמ ְענָה‬
‫וַיִּ ְכתֹּב‬
Unit 28
427
Recommended Bibliography
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§49c-e = pp. 133-34)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996.
(§47 = pp. 139-41)
3. Lambdin, T.O., Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Norwich, 1976. (§98 = pp. 107-08)
Unit 28
428
Unit 29
Weqatal Verbs
Unit Description:
The fourth verbal form that we will learn is the form Weqatal. In the first part of this unit we will
learn how to recognize this form. In the second part we will discover what the meaning of this
form is and how to translate it into English. We will illustrate its usages using a variety of verses
from the Bible.
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
435
Unit 29
429
Vocabulary
Category
Hebrew
English
‫אֹזֶן‬
’ṓzen
’ózen
ear (f.s.)
‫ֶכּ ֶבשׂ‬
kébeś
kéves
lamb (m.s.)
‫ִמ ְס ָפּר‬
mispār
mispar
number (m.s.)
‫ַעמּוּד‬
‘ammûd
’amud
pillar, column (m.s.)
‫ַפּר‬
par
par
young bull (m.s.)
‫ֶשׁ ֶמן‬
šémen
shémen
fat, oil (m.s.)
‫ֵתּ ַשׁע‬
tḗša‘
tésha
nine (f.)
‫ִתּ ְשׁ ִעים‬
tiš‘îm
tishim
ninety
‫ַעל־ ֵכּן‬
‘al-kēn
’al-ken
therefore
‫ָחזַק‬
hāzaq
hazaq
‫ָח ַשׁב‬
hāšab
hashav
‫ָל ַבשׁ‬
lābaš
lavash
‫ָמ ַשׁח‬
māšah
mashah
‫ָטה‬
ָ‫נ‬
nātāh
nata
Nouns
Numbers
Transliteration Pronunciation
Adverb
Verbs
‫ָע ַר ְך‬
m. = masculine
he was/became
strong/firm
he thought, planned
he put on (clothing),
’arakh
‘ārak
f. = feminine
s. = singular
Unit 29
430
he wore
he anointed,
smeared
he stretched out;
he inclined/turned
he set in order,
he arranged
Slides from the Unit
Unit 29
431
Unit 29
432
Unit 29
433
Unit 29
434
Unit 29
435
Unit 29
436
Unit 29
437
Grammatical Remarks
In this unit we return to our discussion of Hebrew verbs. As with the other forms, we have
ַ ‫)וְ ָק‬.
named this fourth verb pattern “Weqatal” after the 3ms form of the verb (‫טל‬
The Weqatal Verb – Morphology
The Weqatal form is also known as a “suffix conjugation” because the subject pronoun of the
verb is attached to the basic form as a suffix. In fact, the Weqatal form is identical to the Qatal
form with a prefixed conjunction ‫ו‬. The full paradigm is in your workbook, but here are a few
extra notes:
•
The only visible difference between the Weqatal form and the Qatal form with a simple
conjunction is that the 1cs and 2ms Weqatal forms have an ultimate accent, not
penultimate.
•
Remember that the conjunction ְ‫ ו‬changes to ‫ וּ‬when it precedes a word that begins with a
ֶ ‫וּק ַט ְל‬
ְ ).
shewa, as is the case with the second person plural suffixed forms (e.g. ‫תּם‬
•
Other than in the 1cs and 2ms forms, there is no visible difference between the Weqatal
form and the Qatal form with a simple conjunction, so we must understand the form by the
context. But while the Qatal form only very rarely appears with the conjunction (e.g.
‫“ וְ ָשׁ ַמע‬and he heard”), the Weqatal form must include the conjunction (e.g. ‫“ וְ ָשׁ ַמע‬and he
will hear”); so if we see a suffixed form prefixed by the conjunction ְ‫ו‬, it is most likely
(though not always) a Weqatal form. A suffixed form without the prefixed ְ‫ ו‬has to be a
Qatal form.
Translating Weqatal
Concerning their modal usages, the Weqatal form is used with the same meaning as the Yiqtol
verb (future or repeated action). One pragmatic distinction between these two verb forms is
where they appear in a sentence. The Weqatal form always appears at the beginning of its clause
(any part of a sentence that contains its own subject and verb), while the Yiqtol form usually
appears in the middle or at the end of its clause.
We may translate the Weqatal ‫ ו‬into English (“and,” “so,” “then,” etc.); but within certain
contexts sometimes it is also possible or even preferable to omit this conjunction in the
translation. Since the verbal affixes are so specific about the subject of each verb, a separate
subject pronoun (e.g. ‫סגַר הוּא‬
ָ ְ‫“ ו‬he will close”) isn’t necessary in Hebrew. But if no separate
subject is written, English (whose verb forms are not so specific) requires us to translate the
subject pronoun.
Unit 29
438
Homework
1. Read aloud the following words from the vocabulary list and write the
appropriate word under each picture below.
‫אֹזֶן‬
a)
‫ָח ַשׁב‬
‫ֶכּ ֶבשׂ‬
‫ָח ַשׁב‬
‫ָמ ַשׁח‬
‫ַעמּוּד‬
‫ֵתּ ַשׁע‬
c)
b)
e)
d)
f)
‫ַפּר‬
g)
h)
Unit 29
439
‫ִתּ ְשׁ ִעים‬
‫‪2. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English.‬‬
‫ָטה ְל ָבבוֹ‬
‫)‪ִ (1 Kgs. 11:9‬כּי־נ ָ‬
‫‪because his heart had turned‬‬
‫ָדים ֲא ֵח ִרים‬
‫)‪ (Lev. 6:4‬וְ ָל ַבשׁ ְבּג ִ‬
‫)‪ַ (Lev. 14:29‬ה ֶשּׁ ֶמן ֲא ֶשׁר ַעל־ ַכּף ַהכּ ֵֹהן‬
‫)‪ְ (1 Kgs. 18:31‬כּ ִמ ְס ַפּר ִשׁ ְב ֵטי ְבנֵי־ ַי ֲעקֹב‬
‫אָרץ‬
‫)‪ִ (Gen. 41:57‬כּי־ ָחזַק ָה ָר ָעב ְבּ ָכל־ ָה ֶ‬
‫אָמ ְר ִתּי ִל ְבנֵי יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬
‫)‪ַ (Lev. 17:12‬על־ ֵכּן ַ‬
‫אַהרֹן ַהכּ ֵֹהן ֵאשׁ ַעל־ ַה ִמּ ְז ֵבּ ַח‬
‫ָתנוּ ְבּנֵי ֲ‬
‫וְ נ ְ‬
‫)‪ (Lev. 1:7‬וְ ָע ְרכוּ ֵע ִצים ַעל־ ָה ֵאשׁ‬
‫‪3. Convert the following Qatal verbs to the Weqatal form.‬‬
‫‪Unit 29‬‬
‫‪440‬‬
‫‪Weqatal‬‬
‫‪Qatal‬‬
‫וְ ָכ ַתב‬
‫ָכּ ַתב‬
‫ָר ַד ְפ ָתּ‬
‫ַקנוּ‬
‫ָחז ְ‬
‫ָבּ ַט ְח ִתּי‬
‫ְשׁ ַפ ְכ ֶתּם‬
‫ָע ְזרוּ‬
‫ָק ַצ ְר ְתּ‬
‫ָשׁ ְמ ָעה‬
4. Write the number of the correct translation after each phrase, paying attention
to how each Weqatal verb is translated in context.
‫( ְו ָל ַק ְח ָתּ ִא ָשּׁה ִל ְבנִ י ְליִ ְצ ָחק‬Gen. 24:4)
‫וְהיָה ְשׂ ָכ ִרי‬
ָ (Gen. 30:32)
‫ ִמנְ ָחה ִהוא‬... ‫וְאָמ ְר ָתּ‬
ַ (Gen. 32:19)
‫אָס ְפ ָתּ ֶאת־ ִז ְקנֵי יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬
ַ ‫( ְו‬Exo. 3:16)
‫( ְו ָשׂ ַמח ְבּ ִלבּוֹ‬Exo. 4:14)
‫ָב ְחנוּ ַליהוָה ֱאל ֵֹהינוּ‬
ַ ‫( ְוז‬Exo. 8:23)
‫וְע ַב ְר ִתּי ְב ֶא ֶרץ־ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם ַבּ ַלּיְ ָלה ַהזֶּה‬
ָ (Exo. 12:12)
‫וְע ַמד ֶפּ ַתח ָהא ֶֹהל‬
ָ (Exo. 33:9)
1. It will be my wages.
2. And he will be glad in his heart.
3. Then you shall say, “… it is a gift.”
4. We must sacrifice to the LORD our God.
5. And you shall gather the elders of Israel.
6. And it would stand at the entrance of the tent.
7. And you will get a wife for my son, for Isaac.
8. And I will pass through the land of Egypt on this night.
Unit 29
441
7
Recommended Bibliography
1. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, As Edited and Enlarged by the Late E. Kautzsch, Second
English Ed. Revised in accordance with the Twenty-eighth German Ed. by A. E. Cowley,
Oxford, 1910. (§49h-m = pp. 134-35)
2. Joüon, P., Muraoka, T., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome, 1996.
(§43 = pp. 134-35)
3. Lambdin, T.O., Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Norwich, 1976. (§98 = pp. 107-08)
Unit 29
442
Unit 30
Where We've Been
Unit Description:
"Where We've Been" is the name of our last meeting in this course. In this meeting we'll go back
through the course and see the long way that we have come from our first unit until now.
New Words in this Unit
15
Total New Words
450
Unit 30
443
Vocabulary
Category
Hebrew
‫ָמין‬
ִ‫י‬
Nouns
Transliteration
yāmîn
Pronunciation
yamin
English
right (hand) (f.s.)
‫ִמ ְג ָרשׁ‬
migrāš
migrash
open/common
land,
pasture-land (m.s.)
‫אכה‬
ָ ‫ְמ ָל‬
məlā’kāh
məlakha
occupation,
work (f.s.)
‫ְפּ ִרי‬
pərî
pəri
fruit (m.s.)
‫ְצ ָד ָקה‬
sədāqāh
tsədaka
righteousness (f.s.)
/ ‫ְשׂמֹאל‬
‫ְשׂמֹאול‬
śəmō’l
səmol
the left (m.s.)
‫אַשּׁוּר‬
’aššûr
’ashur
Asshur, Assyria
‫ָבּ ֶבל‬
bābel
bavel
Babel, Babylon
‫ִציּוֹן‬
siyyôn
tsiyon
Zion
‫מוּאל‬
ֵ ‫ְשׁ‬
šəmû’ēl
shəmuel
Samuel
‫שׁ ְֹמרוֹן‬
šōmrôn
shomron
Samaria
‫ְל ַבד‬
ləbad
ləvad
alone, by itself
/ ‫אָהב‬
ֵ
‫אָהב‬
ַ
’āhēb / ’āhab
’ahev / ’ahav
he loved
‫ָנגַע‬
nāga‘
naga
he touched,
reached, struck
‫ָסע‬
ַ‫נ‬
nāsa‘
nasa
he pulled out/up,
set out, journeyed
Proper
Nouns
Adverb /
Adjective
Verbs
m. = masculine
f. = feminine
s. = singular
Unit 30
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Slides from the Unit
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Homework
1. Write the number of the correct translation after each phrase.
‫ָסע‬
ַ ‫( וְ ָה ָעם לֹא נ‬Num. 12:15)
3
‫( לֹא ַעל־ ַה ֶלּ ֶחם ְל ַבדּוֹ‬Dt. 8:3)
‫וּצ ָד ָקה‬
ְ ‫( וְ ָע ָשׂה ִמ ְשׁ ָפּט‬Eze. 18:5)
‫אַתּה יְ הוָה ֱאל ִֹהים ְל ַב ֶדּ ָך‬
ָ (2 Kgs. 19:19)
‫רוּשׁ ָל ִם‬
ָ ְ‫( ָנגַע ַעד־ ַשׁ ַער ַע ִמּי ַעד־י‬Mic. 1:9)
‫ַשּׁה‬
ֶ ‫( וְ ֶאת־ ְשׂמֹאלוֹ ַעל־רֹאשׁ ְמנ‬Gen. 48:14)
‫( וְ ַעל ָכּל־ ָבּ ֵתּי ַה ָבּמוֹת ֲא ֶשׁר ְבּ ָע ֵרי שׁ ְֹמרוֹן‬1 Kgs. 13:32)
‫רוּשׁ ַל ִם‬
ָ ְ‫ ֶמ ֶל ְך־ ָבּ ֶבל הוּא וְ ָכל־ ֵחילוֹ ַעל־י‬... ‫( ָבּא‬2 Kgs. 25:1)
1. not on bread alone
2. you alone, LORD, are God
3. and the people did not set out
4. and his left hand on Manasseh’s head
5. and he does justice and righteousness
6. it has reached to the gate of my people, up to Jerusalem
7. the king of Babylon came, he and all his army, against Jerusalem
8. and against all the houses of the high places that are in the cities of Samaria
Unit 30
457
2. Translate the following phrases from Hebrew into English.
‫( ִמ ְג ְר ֵשׁי ֶה ָע ִרים‬Num. 35:4)
the pasture lands of the cities
‫מוּאל‬
ֵ ‫ַתּ ְק ָרא ֶאת־ ְשׁמוֹ ְשׁ‬
ִ ‫( ו‬1 Sam. 1:20)
‫תוֹך־ ַהגָּן‬
ְ ‫( ְפּ ִרי ָה ֵעץ ֲא ֶשׁר ְבּ‬Gen 3:3)
‫( וַיִּ ְשׁ ַלח יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ֶאת־יְ ִמינוֹ‬Gen. 48:14)
‫אָרץ‬
ֶ ‫ ֶמ ֶל ְך־אַשּׁוּר ַעל־ ָה‬... ‫ָבּא‬
(2 Kgs. 15:19)
‫יוֹסף‬
ֵ ‫אָהב ֶאת־‬
ַ ‫( וְ יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬Gen. 37:3)
‫הוּדה‬
ָ ְ‫וַיִּ ְב ַחר ֶאת־ ֵשׁ ֶבט י‬
‫אָהב‬
ֵ ‫( ֶאת־ ַהר ִציּוֹן ֲא ֶשׁר‬Psa. 78:68)
We hope you’ve enjoyed learning Hebrew with us as much as
we’ve enjoyed teaching you! We wish you the best in your future
Hebrew studies and hope to see you again in our next course. ☺
Unit 30
458
Verbal Paradigms
*accented syllables are bolded in the charts below*
Qatal (Unit A20)
Singular
Plural
First Person Common
‫ָק ַט ְל ִתּי‬
‫ָק ַט ְלנוּ‬
Second Person Masculine
‫ָק ַט ְל ָתּ‬
‫ְק ַט ְל ֶתּם‬
Second Person Feminine
‫ָק ַט ְל ְתּ‬
‫ְק ַט ְל ֶתּן‬
Third Person Masculine
‫ָק ַטל‬
‫ָק ְטלוּ‬
Third Person Feminine
‫ָק ְט ָלה‬
‫ָק ְטלוּ‬
Yiqtol (Unit A24)
Singular
Plural
First Person Common
‫ֶא ְקטֹל‬
‫נִ ְקטֹל‬
Second Person Masculine
‫ִתּ ְקטֹל‬
‫ִתּ ְק ְטלוּ‬
Second Person Feminine
‫ִתּ ְק ְט ִלי‬
‫ִתּ ְקט ְֹלנָה‬
Third Person Masculine
‫יִ ְקטֹל‬
‫יִ ְק ְטלוּ‬
Third Person Feminine
‫ִתּ ְקטֹל‬
‫ִתּ ְקט ְֹלנָה‬
Wayyiqtol (Unit A28)
Singular
Plural
First Person Common
‫ָא ְקטֹל‬
ֶ‫ו‬
‫וַנִּ ְקטֹל‬
Second Person Masculine
‫ַתּ ְקטֹל‬
ִ‫ו‬
‫ַתּ ְק ְטלוּ‬
ִ‫ו‬
Second Person Feminine
‫ַתּ ְק ְט ִלי‬
ִ‫ו‬
‫ַתּ ְקט ְֹלנָה‬
ִ‫ו‬
Third Person Masculine
‫וַיִּ ְקטֹל‬
‫וַיִּ ְק ְטלוּ‬
Third Person Feminine
‫ַתּ ְקטֹל‬
ִ‫ו‬
‫ַתּ ְקט ְֹלנָה‬
ִ‫ו‬
Weqatal (Unit A29)
Singular
Plural
First Person Common
‫וְ ָק ַט ְל ִתּי‬
‫וְ ָק ַט ְלנוּ‬
Second Person Masculine
‫וְ ָק ַט ְל ָתּ‬
‫וּק ַט ְל ֶתּם‬
ְ
Second Person Feminine
‫וְ ָק ַט ְל ְתּ‬
‫וּק ַט ְל ֶתּן‬
ְ
Third Person Masculine
‫וְ ָק ַטל‬
‫וְ ָק ְטלוּ‬
Third Person Feminine
‫וְ ָק ְט ָלה‬
‫וְ ָק ְטלוּ‬
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