EGN 3373 Week 1 Spring 2015

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EGN 3373 Introduction
to Electrical Systems I
A Systems Approach to Electrical Engineering
Graphics Adapted from “Physical, Earth, and Space Science”, Tom Hsu, cpoScience.
Syllabus & Policies
EGN 3373-Section 002 Electrical Systems I
Time/Place: MW 12:30-1:45 EDU 115
Pre-requisites: PHY 2049, PHY 2049L (Physics II and Lab)
Co-requisites: MAP 2302 (Differential Equations)
Textbook: Electrical Engineering: Concepts and Applications, Zekavat;
ISBN:1269527045, by Pearson.
jCourse
Coordinators:
Dr. Sylvia Thomas Office Hours (instructor): TR 11:00 AM – 12:15 PM
Office: ENB 368
Telephone: 813-974-4011
e-mail: [email protected]
Course Objectives: To study the fundamental principles and analysis techniques
of electrical circuits: resistance, inductance, capacitance, dependent and
independent sources, AC and DC circuits, transient and steady state analysis,
operation and applications of basic electronic devices.
Syllabus & Policies
EGN 3373-Section 002 Electrical Systems I
Course Objectives: To study the fundamental principles and analysis techniques
of electrical circuits: resistance, inductance, capacitance, dependent and
independent sources, AC and DC circuits, transient and steady state analysis,
operation and applications of basic electronic devices.
Topics:
* Systems * Signals – digital, analog, processing
* Circuits – sources, elements, analysis
* Electronics – diodes, op amps, transistors
* Controls – transfer function, feedback
* Electromagnetics – transmission, RF
WHY ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (EE) ?
• EE is the field of engineering that deals with the study of electricity,
electronics, and electromagnetics (by controlling the flow of charges
(or charged particles like electrons) and energy (in the form of
electromagnetic waves)).
• Studying EE will help prepare you as a technical leader for
projects, increase your versatility and diversity as an engineer
able to apply skills to practical problems, and enhance cross
discipline communications.
• The two key areas of EE deal with (a) energy/power
generation, transmission, and consumption, and (b)
information processing, storage, and transmission.
• There is essentially no device/system/appliance we
use in our daily lives that does not use electricity !!
An EE Systems Approach
A conceptual
model for
electrical
engineering
design.
A System
Every product, application, function, and/or device is
comprised of a system.
A system is defined as a set of functionally related
things, parts, products, organs, elements …..that
form a complex whole to carryout specific activities,
perform specific tasks, produce a specific output.
This course emphasizes how electrical circuits are
an integral part of these systems and how
electrical/electronic elements can be understood
in practical applications.
An EE Systems Approach
Aerospace
Cyber Physical Systems
“Trans/Multi/Inter-disciplinary by it’s Own Nature”
Medical Simulators
Computers
Communications
Systems
Instrumentation
&
Controls
Robotics
An EE Systems Approach
Communication Systems
•
•
•
•
Television
Radio
Mobile phones
Internet (wired and
wireless)
• Satellite systems
• And many more…
An EE Systems Approach
Computer Systems
• Your basic calculator
• Your sophisticated
calculator !
• Smart phones
• Computers
• Tablets
• E-readers
• And many more…
An EE Systems Approach
Transmitting Systems
 “Specialized cables” designed to carry currents
alternating with a frequency such that “wave
nature” of the current cannot be ignored.
Some common
transmission lines (TLs)
Why the need for “specialized cables”?
 If frequency is high and the cable is not
properly designed, it can radiate like an
antenna!
What is the “wave nature” of current?
 Voltages and currents vary in magnitude
and phase over the length of the TL.
 The total voltage and current can be
written as a sum of two sinusoidals that
look like + and – traveling
current/voltage waves.
 Waves have voltage to current ratio related
to the electromagnetic field distribution of
the cable: Characteristic impedance.
Example of a cage line (functions like large
coaxial cable) used for high power, low
frequency applications; antenna feedline for a
radio transmitter that operates at 225 kHz
(frequency) and 1200 kW (power).
10
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_line
An EE Systems Approach
Microprocessor Control Systems
An EE Systems Approach
Microprocessor Control Systems
 What’s a microprocessor? What’s it good for?
• The heart/brain of computers
• Its job: runs programs
• Thermostats
• Nuclear missiles
• Angry Birds
 How do micros work? How do requests
(inputs) get turned into results (outputs)?
• Datapath and Control
• Arithmetic, Storage, Input/Output, Flow
control
Program + Data
0010100101001
0100100100111
Computer
Microprocessor
Output
1010010101000
0100101001010
 How do we tell micros what to do?
• High-level programming
• Binary machine code
12
An EE Systems Approach
Digital Systems Replacing Analog
1-bit adder
made with logic gates
Logic gates made with transistor circuits
• Digital systems
– Discrete voltages instead of continuous
– Simpler to design than analog circuits – can build more sophisticated
systems
– Digital systems replacing analog predecessors:
• i.e., digital cameras, digital television, cell phones, CDs
• Quantization: Mapping analog values (3.28 volts and 0.7 volts) to digital
values (1’s and 0’s)
An EE Systems Approach
Signal Processing Systems
– Electrical signals carry information
– Such as a recorded voice (Siri is a good
example of a signal processing system)
– Or a photo you have taken with your
smartphone
– Or a CT scan image when
trying to diagnose disease
An EE Systems Approach
Practical Applications of Systems
– Similar to sample systems
presented in Chapter 1
An EE Systems Approach
Physical System
Block Diagram & Mathematical
Modeling
High Level System Modeling
An EE Systems Approach
Instrumentation and Controls
Modeling of Physical Systems & System Identification
Physical System ↔ Transfer Function ↔ Network Synthesis
A
o
n
g
a
y
l
t
dy
Y ( s)
2s
 2 y (t )  5 y ( )d  10u(t )  ( s 2  2 s  5)Y ( s )  2 sU ( s ) 
 2

dt
U ( s) s  2s  5
An EE Systems Approach
Allows for
error
detection
in the
receiver
Vocoder
CRC
Coding
Allows for
error
correction in
the receiver
Forward Error
Protection
Coding
Improves
error
correction
in the
receiver
(fading
resistance)
Interleaving
RADIO
RADIO
RECEIVER
CHANNEL
Maps
digital
bits to
symbols
Symbol
Mapping
RF
Out
A Simple Radio Communication System
Maps
digital
symbols
to
analog
signals
D/A
Pulse shape
Filtering &
RF
Modulation
An EE Systems Approach
Transceiver: Role of a Transmitter
Information
HPMX-2007
2. add data to carrier
3. shift to high
frequency
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Modulator
A
D
Mixer
0
90
I Data
Antenna
uP/
DSP
Power Amplifier
A
4. amplify to
broadcast
Q Data
D
Oscillator
bias
bias
1. create carrier
Power Supply
A Simple Radio Communication System
Baseband
Processor
An EE Systems Approach
Transceiver: Role of a Receiver
Information
4. discard carrier and
recover data
2. shift to lower frequency
(cost and/or performance)
HPMX-2007
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De-Modulator
A
Baseband
Processor
D
Mixer
0
90
I Data
Antenna
uP/
DSP
Low Noise Amplifier
A
Q Data
D
1. amplify received signal
with min. added noise
Oscillator
bias
bias
3. LO for down conversion
Power Supply
A Simple Radio Communication System
bias
An EE Systems Approach
3rd. Generation
(2000s)
2nd. Generation
(1990s)
1st.Generation
(1980s)
Analog
NMT
TACS
AMPS
CT0
CT1
IMT-2000
CDMA2000
W-CDMA
Digital
GSM DECT
DCS1800 CT2
PDC PHS
IS-54
IS-95
IS-136
UP-PCS
Cellular Systems
4th Generation
(2010s)
IMT-advanced
LTE, 802.16m
An EE Systems Approach
?
Cellular Systems
An EE Systems Approach
Future System Terminals
An EE Systems Approach
Cellular Systems
An EE Systems Approach
Everything Wireless in One Device
Cellular Systems
An EE Systems Approach
Cellular Systems
What do you think is
one of the key elements
of these systems?
the Signal Processing
EE-6593
Signal Processing
• Humans are the most advanced signal processors
– speech and pattern recognition, speech synthesis,…
• We encounter many types of signals in various applications
–
–
–
–
Electrical signals: voltage, current, magnetic and electric fields,…
Mechanical signals: velocity, force, displacement,…
Acoustic signals: sound, vibration,…
Other signals: pressure, temperature,…
• Most real-world signals are analog vs. digital
– They are continuous in time and amplitude
– Convert to voltage or currents using sensors and transducers
• Analog circuits process these signals using
– Resistors, Capacitors, Inductors, Amplifiers,…
Signal Processing
• Processing of such signals includes storage,
reconstruction, transmission, separation of
information from noise, compression, feature
extraction, etc.
• Digital signals represent discrete inputs (e.g.
logic values 1, 0) and analog signals represent a
continuum of inputs.
Digital Signal
Analog Signal
Reference: Zekavat, Chapter 14, Section 14.4
Signal Processing
•
•
•
•
•
•
Signal improvement
Signal acquisitions
Signal compression
Signal feature extraction
Signal synthesis
Signal generation, transmission, and
reception
• …
Signal Processing
Limitations of Analog Signal
Processing
• Accuracy limitations due to
– Component tolerances
– Undesired nonlinearities
• Limited repeatability due to
– Changes in environmental conditions
• Temperature
• Vibration
•
•
•
•
Sensitivity to electrical noise
Limited dynamic range for voltage and currents
Inflexibility to changes
Difficulty of implementing certain operations
– Nonlinear operations
– Time-varying operations
• Difficulty of storing information
Digital Signal Processing
• Represent signals by a sequence of numbers
– Analog-to-digital conversions (Sampling + Quantization)
• Perform processing on these numbers with a digital
processor
– Digital signal processing
• Reconstruct analog signal from processed numbers
– Reconstruction or digital-to-analog conversion
analog
signal
A/D
digital
signal
DSP
digital
signal
D/A
analog
signal
DSP is Everywhere
• Sound applications
– Compression, enhancement, special effects, synthesis, recognition,
echo cancellation,…
– Cell Phones, MP3 Players, Movies, Dictation, Text-to-speech,…
• Communication
– Modulation, coding, detection, equalization, echo cancellation,…
– Cell Phones, dial-up modem, DSL modem, Satellite Receiver,…
• Automotive
– ABS, GPS, Active Noise Cancellation, Cruise Control, Parking,…
• Medical
– Magnetic Resonance, Tomography, Electrocardiogram,…
• Military
– Radar, Sonar, Space photographs, remote sensing,…
• Image and Video Applications
– DVD, JPEG, Movie special effects, video conferencing,…
• Mechanical
– Motor control, process control, oil and mineral prospecting,…
Digital Signal Processing
• Signals of interest include sound, images, radar,
biological signals such as ECG, and many
others.
Digital Signal Processing
• A series of trigonometric and arithmetic
operations.
• Series of steps called “algorithms”
• Digital Processing – a series of instructions
to manipulate the digital numbers.
• Algorithm classes
– Spectral analysis
– Digital filtering
– Coding and compressing data
– Noise reduction
– Etc.
Digital Signals for EE Systems
• DSP is the analysis, interpretation, and
manipulation of signals (in the digital domain).
These signals can be represented
by codes using two discrete values: – 1’s and 0’s
– 1, TRUE, HIGH
– 0, FALSE, LOW
Digital circuits can use voltage
levels to represent 1s and 0s
Digital Module: Bits, Binary, & Decimal
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