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MIT 22033
Database Management Systems
Lesson 02: Database Design Process
By
S. Sabraz Nawaz
Senior Lecturer in MIT, FMC, SEUSL
Database Design Process
Database design process can be divided into 6 major steps:
(given in Raghu’s text book)
Requirements
Analysis
Security
Design
Conceptual
Database
Design
Physical
Database
Design
Logical
Database
Design
Schema
Refinement
MIT 22033, Database Management Systems By: S.Sabraz Nawaz
2
Requirements Analysis
• This step answers the following
question:
“What users want from the database?”
-
what is going to be stored in the database
what applications are going to be built on top
the database
what are the most frequently asked queries
MIT 22033, Database Management Systems By: S.Sabraz Nawaz
Requirements
Analysis
3
Requirements Analysis…
Result:
A well-written concise
document enumerating the
user’s requirements
MIT 22033, Database Management Systems By: S.Sabraz Nawaz
Requirements
Analysis
4
Requirements Analysis…
For example: a library database…
Data to be stored can be…
• Record of all books in the library
• Record of members of the library
o Students
o Faculty
o Other members
Requirements
Analysis
• Record members’ borrowing
information
MIT 22033, Database Management Systems By: S.Sabraz Nawaz
5
Requirements Analysis…
•
•
•
•
Some applications on top of
the database can be…
Renewal service (may be online)
Borrowing-Lending service
Resource reservation system
(may be on-line)
Resource request service
(may be on-line)
MIT 22033, Database Management Systems By: S.Sabraz Nawaz
Requirements
Analysis
6
Conceptual Database Design
The information gathered in
the requirements analysis
phase is used to create a
high-level description of
the data in a conceptual
data model. (Semantic Data
Model, e.g. E-R Diagram )
MIT 22033, Database Management Systems By: S.Sabraz Nawaz
Requirements
Analysis
Conceptual
Database
Design
7
Logical Database Design
In this step, we determine the
DBMS to implement the
database & also the data model
Requirements
Analysis
We utilize the conceptual
schema created in the previous
step and convert it into a
schema of a particular data
model (e.g. Relational
Database Schema)
Logical
Database
Design
MIT 22033, Database Management Systems By: S.Sabraz Nawaz
Conceptual
Database
Design
8
Schema Refinement
The schema created
by the logical
database design
phase is further
refined for potential
problems such as
redundancies (e.g.
Normalization)
Requirements
Analysis
Schema
Refinement
Conceptual
Database Design
Logical Database
Design
MIT 22033, Database Management Systems By: S.Sabraz Nawaz
9
Physical Database Design
In this step, performance
criteria are taken into
consideration and further
enhancements to the schema
& creation of indexes are
considered
Requirements
Analysis
Physical
Database
Design
Schema
Refinement
MIT 22033, Database Management Systems By: S.Sabraz Nawaz
Conceptual
Database
Design
Logical
Database
Design
10
Security Design
In this step, different user
groups and their roles are
identified. Appropriate levels
of access are then provided
to the data ensuring that
users have access to only the
necessary data.
Requireme
nts Analysis
Security
Design
Conceptual
Database
Design
Physical
Database
Design
Logical
Database
Design
Schema
Refinement
MIT 22033, Database Management Systems By: S.Sabraz Nawaz
11
The story is…
Requirements
Analysis
Security
Design
Conceptual
Database
Design
Physical
Database
Design
Logical
Database
Design
ER Diagram
Conceptual Schema
or Logical Schema
Schema
Refinement
MIT 22033, Database Management Systems By: S.Sabraz Nawaz
12
Reference:
Ramakrishnan, R., & Gehrke, J. (2003). Database management
systems. Osborne/McGraw-Hill. (Pp. 03– 23)
MIT 22033, Database Management Systems By: S.Sabraz Nawaz
13
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